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Elvas, Portugal

Visnevschi-Necrasov T.,CIBIO ICETA | Visnevschi-Necrasov T.,University of Porto | Harris D.J.,CIBIO ICETA | Faria M.A.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research

Scorpiurus muricatus and Scorpiurus vermiculatus have been proposed as possible subjects for breeding programs to improve their potential as forage crops. However, prior to this genetic diversity between these species and within distinct populations should be assessed. We estimated diversity between populations from the Iberian Peninsula using ITS 1 and ITS 2 nuclear DNA sequences. Twelve haplotypes from 25 individuals were determined, and a network of relationships produced. Our results indicate considerable haplotypic diversity, but no deep subdivisions either within S. muricatus or between the two species. This means that no potential barriers to the proposed breeding programs were identified. Source

Ribeiro T.,University of Lisbon | Lordelo M.M.S.,University of Lisbon | Ponte P.I.P.,University of Lisbon | Macas B.,INRB INIA | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science

To improve the nutritive value of barleybased diet for broilers, 2 experiments using 2 different barley lots were performed to evaluate the capacity of a mesophilic cellulase when fused to a ß-glucan specific family 11 carbohydrate-binding module. The data revealed that the recombinant ß-glucanase derivatives were not appropriate for feed supplementation because of a lack of stability at acidic pH levels. However, under the same experimental conditions, a commercial enzyme mixture improved the nutritive value of 1 of the cereal lots used. Analysis of the nutritive value of the 2 barleys revealed intrinsic differences in the levels of endogenous ß-glucanase activity. These differences were extensively evident when the studies were expanded to a range of 64 barley lots. Thus, to clarify the effect of endogenous cellulases on the efficacy of exogenous ß-glucanases used to supplement barley-based diets for poultry, 2 barley lots presenting low and high levels of endogenous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes were selected. These lots were used to prepare 2 barleybased diets, which were supplemented with or without a commercial enzyme product and fed to broiler chicks. The data revealed that the exogenous enzymes were effective when the basal diet presented low levels of endogenous ß-glucanases but were unable to improve the nutritive value of the barley lot displaying higher ß-glucanase activity. Thus, these studies suggest that levels of endogenous ß-glucanases may affect the efficacy of exogenous enzymes used to improve the nutritive value of barley-based diets for broilers. The development of a quick ß-glucanase assay that could be applied for cereal-based feeds may help identify those barley-based diets that are more responsive to the action of feed enzymes. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Visnevschi-Necrasov T.,CIBIO | Visnevschi-Necrasov T.,University of Porto | Harris D.J.,CIBIO | Faria M.A.,Laboratory of Food and Water Science | And 3 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research

Genetic diversity within Iberian populations of Ornithopus pinnatus, O. compressus, O. sativus and Biserrula pelecinus were assessed using ITS1 and ITS2 DNA sequences from sixty four specimens, and a phylogeny between Ornithopus species was estimated. Generally within-species variation was low, particularly within Ornithopus. The Mediterranean species of Ornithopus form a sister clade relative to the South American O. micranthopus. The sometimes considered a full species, O. sativus isthmocarpus, was not distinct from O. sativus. Between some species there is limited genetic divergence using these markers, although the situation of O. perpusillus requires additional specimens to be examined before firm conclusions can be drawn. Source

Veloso M.M.,INRB INIA Oeiras | Almandanim M.C.,New University of Lisbon | Baleiras-Couto M.,INRB INIA | Pereira H.S.,University of Lisbon | And 3 more authors.
Ciencia e Tecnica Vitivinicola

Six nuclear microsatellite loci (VVMD 5, VVMD 7, VVMD 27, VrZAG 62, VrZAG 79 and VVS 2) were chosen to study the differentiation of 313 grapevine cultivars officially authorized for wine production in Portugal (Portaria n° 428/2000, Diário da República n° 163, 17th July 2000). These loci were found to be highly informative and therefore constitute a useful marker set for the discrimination of the targeted cultivars. This study allowed for the detection of 244 distinct genotypes as well as for the identification of synonyms in 40 cultivars, where 2 to 6 (synonymous) cultivars represent seventeen genotypes. The remaining 29 cultivars are distributed in 11 distinct sets, where each set displays identical SSRs profiles. However, these should be considered as distinct cultivars considering that these differ in berry colour. Taken together, the results of this work will contribute to improve the management of the Portuguese Grapevine National Collection as well as give a good technical support for the update of the list of cultivars officially authorized for wine production in Portugal (Portaria n° 428/2000). Furthermore, it will also be a useful for the control of plant material in the future. Source

Maia I.,INRB INIA | Horta M.,University of Algarve | Cravador A.,University of Algarve | Medeira C.,INRB INIA
Microscopy and Microanalysis

Several forest species are severely affected by Phytophthora cinnamomi. The contribution of this oomycete to forest decline and dieback has been broadly reported. In particular, it is consensual that it is the causal agent of ink disease in Castanea sativa. It has been associated with the severe decline of Quercus species, namely the Q. suber and Q. ilex dieback in Portugal and Spain, and has been responsible for the infection of numerous native species and crops. This pathogen persists in the soil or on plant material in the form of chlamydospores allowing the infection of living root tissues when environmental conditions are favorable. © Microscopy Society of America 2012. Source

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