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Quinta do Anjo, Portugal

In the industrial production of natural cork stoppers, cork planks are cut transversely into strips and stoppers are bored in the axial direction, therefore with their cylinder axis parallel to the tree axial direction. The influence of cutting direction of cork planks (transverse or longitudinal), and therefore the orientation of stoppers cylindrical axis (longitudinal or tangential, respectively) on yields, quality profile and porosity characteristics was studied in a random sampling of planks of different quality classes that were bored to produce 45 mm × 24 mm stoppers. The stoppers quality profile and production values were not influenced by the cutting direction, although in good quality planks (1st/2nd) the longitudinal cut led to a higher proportion of good quality stoppers in comparison to the transversal cut, 32% vs. 23%. Regarding porosity characteristics, pore orientation differed between the two cutting directions but not the porosity coefficient, with the exception of the poor quality classes. Source

Yufera M.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Icman Csic | Moyano F.J.,University of Almeria | Astola A.,University of Cadiz | Pousao-Ferreira P.,INRB | Martinez-Rodriguez G.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Icman Csic

Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices. © 2012 Yúfera et al. Source

Ferreira M.A.,INRB | Sousa M.E.,University of Lisbon
Acta Horticulturae

Tetranychus evansi, an important pest of tomatoes and other solanaceous crops, was not found in Europe until 1991 when it was identified for the first time in Portugal on tomato. Afterwards, this species spread within Mediterranean countries. However, the species is also known on other plant families and can be present but disregarded on non-crop plants. T. evansi is polyphagous, but the major hosts are within the Solanaceae. The primary cultivated solanaceous hosts in Portugal are tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), aubergine (Solanum melongena), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and to a lesser degree pepper (Capsicum annuum). In this country, some aromatic plants and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) are cultivated non-solanaceous hosts, and Lantana camara is an ornamental non-solanaceous host. The preferred weed host for T. evansi is the widespread Solanum nigrum. Other weed hosts in Portugal include Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Solanaceae. T. evansi has been found in Portugal from Minho to Algarve, with the exception of Trás-os-Montes, Alto Douro, and Beira Alta, but it is more frequent in the centre and south of the country. It is also present in Madeira Island. Source

Pinto W.,University of Algarve | Figueira L.,University of Algarve | Ribeiro L.,INRB | Yufera M.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Csic | And 2 more authors.

The effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth performance, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae was investigated. These parameters were assessed in larvae fed control and taurine supplemented microcapsules during the pelagic phase. Subsequently, a similar evaluation was carried out in newly settled larvae fed upon Artemia, in order to verify the effect of earlier dietary taurine supplementation in larvae reared under improved feeding conditions. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not affect larval growth performance and metamorphosis during the pelagic phase. However, by the end of the trial, Senegalese sole previously fed taurine supplemented microcapsules had a significantly higher growth performance and metamorphosis completion success than larvae fed control microcapsules. These differences were likely related to the improvement of feeding conditions upon settlement, which probably helped revealing the positive effects of earlier dietary taurine supplementation on Senegalese sole performance. Additionally, Senegalese sole may have benefited from taurine antioxidant properties during metamorphosis, since larval antioxidant defences may saturate at this stage. Furthermore, results from metabolic trials have shown that dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased amino acid retention in Senegalese sole larvae when a concomitant increase of taurine body levels was found. Therefore, an increase in larval growth potential and metamorphosis success was observed under dietary taurine supplementation and these results may help understanding why dietary taurine supplementation has been reported to simultaneously increase taurine body levels and growth performance in other fish species, leading to a better comprehension on the role of taurine during fish development. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Garcia A.,INRB | Mattiucci S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Damiano S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Damiano S.,University of Tuscia | And 2 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science

The metazoan parasite fauna composition of the swordfish Xiphias gladius is reported from 157 fish caught in four areas of the Atlantic Ocean: northwest (NW), central north (CN), eastern tropical (ET), and central south (CS). Samples were collected in 2003, 2006, and 2007. In all, 18 parasite taxa were identified by morphological and genetic methods. These data, together with earlier analyses from the tropical equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic revealed the association of some parasite taxa with distinct areas based on their presence/absence and infection levels. Hysterothylacium corrugatum (s.l.) and Rhadinorhynchus pristis were mostly associated with swordfish caught in the NW, and Anisakis paggiae and H. incurvum with fish caught in the southern areas (ET, TEQ, and CS). Anisakis simplex (s.s.) could be used as a marker for all northern samples. Parasitological data on Atlantic swordfish seem to support the existence of at least two discrete stocks in the Atlantic, supporting swordfish genetic stock structure. © 2010 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved. Source

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