Quinta do Anjo, Portugal
Quinta do Anjo, Portugal
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Silva L.L.,University of Évora | Ragab R.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Duarte I.,INRB | Lourenco E.,University of Évora | And 2 more authors.
Irrigation Science | Year: 2013

The SALTMED model is one of the few available generic models that can be used to simulate crop growth with an integrated approach that accounts for water, crop, soil, and field management. It is a physically based model using the well-known water and solute transport, evapotranspiration, and water uptake equations. In this paper, the model simulated chickpea growth under different irrigation regimes and a Mediterranean climate. Five different chickpea varieties were studied under irrigation regimes ranging from rainfed to 100 % crop water requirements, in a dry and a wet year. The calibration of the model using one of the chickpea varieties was sufficient for simulating the other varieties, not requiring a specific calibration for each individual chickpea variety. The results of calibration and validation of the SALTMED model showed that the model can simulate very accurately soil moisture content, grain yield, and total dry biomass of different chickpea varieties, in both wet and dry years. This new version of the SALTMED model (v. 3.02.09) has more features and possibilities than the previous versions, providing academics and professionals with a very good tool to manage water, soil, and crops. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

In the industrial production of natural cork stoppers, cork planks are cut transversely into strips and stoppers are bored in the axial direction, therefore with their cylinder axis parallel to the tree axial direction. The influence of cutting direction of cork planks (transverse or longitudinal), and therefore the orientation of stoppers cylindrical axis (longitudinal or tangential, respectively) on yields, quality profile and porosity characteristics was studied in a random sampling of planks of different quality classes that were bored to produce 45 mm × 24 mm stoppers. The stoppers quality profile and production values were not influenced by the cutting direction, although in good quality planks (1st/2nd) the longitudinal cut led to a higher proportion of good quality stoppers in comparison to the transversal cut, 32% vs. 23%. Regarding porosity characteristics, pore orientation differed between the two cutting directions but not the porosity coefficient, with the exception of the poor quality classes.

Ferreira M.A.,INRB | Sousa M.E.,University of Lisbon
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Tetranychus evansi, an important pest of tomatoes and other solanaceous crops, was not found in Europe until 1991 when it was identified for the first time in Portugal on tomato. Afterwards, this species spread within Mediterranean countries. However, the species is also known on other plant families and can be present but disregarded on non-crop plants. T. evansi is polyphagous, but the major hosts are within the Solanaceae. The primary cultivated solanaceous hosts in Portugal are tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), aubergine (Solanum melongena), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and to a lesser degree pepper (Capsicum annuum). In this country, some aromatic plants and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) are cultivated non-solanaceous hosts, and Lantana camara is an ornamental non-solanaceous host. The preferred weed host for T. evansi is the widespread Solanum nigrum. Other weed hosts in Portugal include Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Solanaceae. T. evansi has been found in Portugal from Minho to Algarve, with the exception of Trás-os-Montes, Alto Douro, and Beira Alta, but it is more frequent in the centre and south of the country. It is also present in Madeira Island.

Pinto W.,University of Algarve | Figueira L.,University of Algarve | Ribeiro L.,INRB | Yufera M.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Csic | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth performance, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae was investigated. These parameters were assessed in larvae fed control and taurine supplemented microcapsules during the pelagic phase. Subsequently, a similar evaluation was carried out in newly settled larvae fed upon Artemia, in order to verify the effect of earlier dietary taurine supplementation in larvae reared under improved feeding conditions. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not affect larval growth performance and metamorphosis during the pelagic phase. However, by the end of the trial, Senegalese sole previously fed taurine supplemented microcapsules had a significantly higher growth performance and metamorphosis completion success than larvae fed control microcapsules. These differences were likely related to the improvement of feeding conditions upon settlement, which probably helped revealing the positive effects of earlier dietary taurine supplementation on Senegalese sole performance. Additionally, Senegalese sole may have benefited from taurine antioxidant properties during metamorphosis, since larval antioxidant defences may saturate at this stage. Furthermore, results from metabolic trials have shown that dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased amino acid retention in Senegalese sole larvae when a concomitant increase of taurine body levels was found. Therefore, an increase in larval growth potential and metamorphosis success was observed under dietary taurine supplementation and these results may help understanding why dietary taurine supplementation has been reported to simultaneously increase taurine body levels and growth performance in other fish species, leading to a better comprehension on the role of taurine during fish development. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia A.,INRB | Mattiucci S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Damiano S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Damiano S.,University of Tuscia | And 2 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2011

The metazoan parasite fauna composition of the swordfish Xiphias gladius is reported from 157 fish caught in four areas of the Atlantic Ocean: northwest (NW), central north (CN), eastern tropical (ET), and central south (CS). Samples were collected in 2003, 2006, and 2007. In all, 18 parasite taxa were identified by morphological and genetic methods. These data, together with earlier analyses from the tropical equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic revealed the association of some parasite taxa with distinct areas based on their presence/absence and infection levels. Hysterothylacium corrugatum (s.l.) and Rhadinorhynchus pristis were mostly associated with swordfish caught in the NW, and Anisakis paggiae and H. incurvum with fish caught in the southern areas (ET, TEQ, and CS). Anisakis simplex (s.s.) could be used as a marker for all northern samples. Parasitological data on Atlantic swordfish seem to support the existence of at least two discrete stocks in the Atlantic, supporting swordfish genetic stock structure. © 2010 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

Yufera M.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Icman Csic | Moyano F.J.,University of Almeria | Astola A.,University of Cádiz | Pousao-Ferreira P.,INRB | Martinez-Rodriguez G.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Icman Csic
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices. © 2012 Yúfera et al.

Batista I.,INRB | Ramos C.,INRB | Coutinho J.,INRB | Bandarra N.M.,INRB | Nunes M.L.,INRB
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The preparation of protein hydrolysates from black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) by-products (BSB) was studied as an alternative for the upgrading of this raw material. Different levels of Protamex™ were used in the hydrolysate preparation and the peptides obtained and the lipids present in each of the four fractions obtained after centrifugation of the hydrolysed material were characterized. The nitrogen solubilization achieved was around 83% and degree of hydrolysis (DH) was about 57%. A high proportion of the peptides had molecular weights lower than 1000 Da. The highest percentage of oil remained in the emulsion (50-65%) and the highest percentage of free oil obtained was ca. 36%. The fatty acid profile of lipids present in the BSB and in the different fractions was similar. The triacylglycerols were dominant in all fractions and the highest percentage of phospholipids was detected in the oil from sludge and hydrolysate, followed by the emulsion but they were not present in the free oil. Cholesterol and cholesterol esters were detected in all fractions at low levels. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and the reducing power of BSB hydrolysates increased with increasing DH. However, the hydroxyl scavenging activity decreased with DH. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pires C.,INRB | Ramos C.,INRB | Teixeira G.,INRB | Batista I.,INRB | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2011

Hake protein biodegradable films containing different thyme oil levels (0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 ml oil/g protein) were prepared and their physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties were studied. Dried proteins were solubilized at pH 11 with NaOH and glycerol (59% of protein content) was added as plasticizer. The addition of thyme oil levels reduced both the film thickness and water vapor permeability. Films were homogeneous and transparent with a yellowish color. The optical properties of films were not generally affected by the thyme oil addition. Any clear trend between the mechanical properties of biodegradable films and thyme oil added was observed. Hake protein films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was improved by the addition of 0.25 ml of thyme oil/g of protein. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pires C.,INRB | Ramos C.,INRB | Teixeira B.,INRB | Batista I.,INRB | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Physical, mechanical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of hake protein films incorporated with citronella, coriander, tarragon and thyme oils were investigated. Dried hake proteins were solubilized at pH 11.0 (protein concentration in film forming solution ca. 0.9%) and glycerol (59% w/w of protein) and 0.25 ml of each essential oil per gram of protein was added. Films obtained were homogeneous and transparent with a yellowish colour. The addition of the different essential oils reduced the water vapour permeability but increased the solubility of films in water. The amount of protein released from the films depended on the oil added. Among all essential oils incorporated-films the thyme oil films exhibited the lowest mechanical properties (puncture force and elongation at break). Conversely, films with thyme oil added presented the highest inhibition against Shewanella putrefaciens. Antioxidant activity of hake protein films generally increased with the incorporation of essential oils as indicated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pires C.,INRB | Clemente T.,INRB | Batista I.,INRB
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) is a convenient technology for upgrading fish by-products. The aim of this work was to study three different methods of FPH preparation from Cape hake by-products to improve yield and quality. Functional and antioxidative properties of all FPHs were determined. RESULTS: The protein content of hake FPH was in the range 807-860 g kg-1 and the degree of hydrolysis was between 19% and 22%. The maximum yield (71.9%) was achieved by methodology B but the hydrolysate was darker. The peptide profile of all FPHs was very similar. FPH prepared by methodology C had significantly higher emulsifying activity index and hydrolysate prepared by methodology B had the highest foaming capacity. The solubility of FPH was in the range 71-76% and increased the water-holding capacity of minced fish by about 9%. The fractionation of FPH obtained by methodologies A and B allowed concentrating peptides with higher radical scavenging activity and reducing power. CONCLUSION: The properties of the FPH prepared indicated that they can be used in food systems as natural additives, particularly to improve their water-holding capacity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

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