Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France
Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

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Dorfler W.,University of Kiel | Feeser I.,University of Kiel | van den Bogaard C.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Dreibrodt S.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
Holocene | Year: 2012

The annually laminated record of Lake Belau offers an exceptional opportunity to investigate with high temporal resolution Holocene environmental change, aspects of climate history and human impact on the landscape. A new chronology based on varve counts, 14C-datings and heavy metal history has been established, covering the last 9400 years. Based on multiple varve counting on two core sequences, the easily countable laminated section spans about 7850 varve years (modelled age range c. 9430 to 1630 cal. BP). Not all of the record is of the same quality but approximately 69% of the varves sequence is classified to be of high quality and only c. 5% of low quality. The new chronology suggests dates generally c. 260 years older than previously assumed for the laminated section of the record. The implications for the vegetation and land-use history of the region as well as revised datings for pollen stratigraphical events are discussed. Tephra analysis allowed the identification of several cryptotephra layers. New dates for volcanic eruptions are presented for the Lairg B event (c. 6848 cal. BP, 2σ range 6930-6713 cal. BP), the Hekla 4 event (c. 4396 cal. BP, 2σ range 4417-4266 cal. BP), and Hekla 3 eruption (c. 3095 cal. BP, 2σ range 3120-3068 cal. BP). © The Author(s) 2012.

Bertran P.,INRAP | Bertran P.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Bateman M.D.,University of Sheffield | Hernandez M.,Bordeaux Montaigne University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Quaternary Science | Year: 2011

Archaeological investigations undertaken along a proposed highway together with the compilation of available geological and pedological data made it possible to give a first overview of the distribution of Pleistocene aeolian deposits in south-west France. A chronological framework for deposition has been obtained using both radiocarbon (n=24) and luminescence (n=26) dating. It shows that aeolian transport was very active during the Late Pleniglacial, between 15 and ~23ka, leading to sand emplacement over a 13 000-m2 area at the centre of the basin. The Pleniglacial coversands are typified by extensive fields of small transverse to barchanoid ridges giving way to sandsheets to the east. Subsequent aeolian phases, at ca. 12ka (Younger Dryas) and 0.8-0.2ka (Little Ice Age), correspond to the formation of more localized and higher, mainly parabolic dunes. At the southern and eastern margins of the coversand area, aeolian dust accumulated to form loess deposits, the thickness of which reaches ~3m on the plateaus. Luminescence dates together with interglacial-ranking palaeoluvisols between the loess units clearly indicate that these accumulations built up during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The chronology of sand and loess deposition thus appears to be consistent with that already documented for northern Europe. This suggests that it was driven by global climate changes in the northern hemisphere. The relatively thin aeolian deposits (and particularly loess) in south-west France is thought to reflect both a supply-limited system and a moister climate than in more northern and continental regions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Montasser I.,INRAP | Shahgaldian P.,Northwestern University | Perret F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coleman A.W.,CNRS Materials Sciences and Technologies Laboratory
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted increasing attention during recent years. This paper presents an overview about the use of calix[n]arenes and calix-resorcinarenes in the formulation of SLNs. Because of their specific inclusion capability both in the intraparticle spaces and in the host cavities as well as their capacity for functionalization, these colloidal nanostructures represent excellent tools for the encapsulation of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the area of drug targeting, cosmetic additives, contrast agents, etc. Various synthetic routes to the supramolecular structures will be given. These various routes lead to the formulation of the corresponding SLNs. Characterization, properties, toxicological considerations as well as numerous corresponding experimental studies and analytical methods will be also exposed and discussed. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

The Scarpe plain is a depression in the Eocene marine sands between the Pevele and Ostrevant regions. A "high plain" is distinguished northwards from a "low plain" southwards. The infilling is mainly sandy (with a peaty part in the low plain). Numerous micro-topographies are scattered throughout the plain. The small water courses which drain the plain are not proportionate to its size. The laying of a gas pipeline across the plain was preceded by archaeological borings. We present the stratigraphy as a long cross-section and propose an evolution scenario for the plain since the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial. The sedimentation consists mainly of sandy beds alternating with loamy laminae. This alluvial sheet, present everywhere in the plain, was deposited under strongly contrasted hydrological conditions during the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial (OSL dates about 34,21 and 21 ka). It may be correlated to the northern sand belt Older coversand I. Repeated avulsions of wide yet shallow channels have left deflection marks in the micro-topography. The high plain is comparable to flat and broad alluvial fans emanating from the Pévèle.At the end of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial, under a dryer climate, small elongated dunes (sand or sand alternating with loess) formed in the center of the plain or alongside the Pévèle border (OSL dates about 19 and 15 ka). This phase is at least partly contemporary with the Beuningen gravel bed. An ultimate deflation phase is imputed to the Younger Dryas. This last aeolian deposit is even fainter and looks like a thin yet continuous sheet restricted to a large southern part of the plain. Slightly scoured Late Glacial and Holocene streams can be found in the last state of Pleniglacial channels (C 14 dates since 12 345 BP). The former main Pleniglacial channels may thus constitute the overbank channel of the faint Late Glacial and Holocene channels. During the Holocene, the water table rose and consecutively the peat spread in the lower areas of the plain. The widely spread yet often thin peat gradually takes over and blurs the Pleistocene topography. We have crossed three Late Glacial-Holocene channel systems (two Scarpe minor channels and an affluent). Two of them are detailed. The Vred meander bears traces of archaeological remains (a Bronze Age bridge-like structure from around 1000-800 AD) and of anthropic piracy in the upstream "Satis" during the Early Middle Ages (calcareous tufa loam flood deposits).

Dendro-anthracological analyses were performed on 19 archaeological sites located in the Limagne plain and dated from the 5 millennium BC to the 3rd century AD. Analyses concerned different archaeological contexts such as fireplaces, post-holes and settlement sites. The data shows a change in wood supply with time, namely the replacement of oak by beech between the la and the 2nd Iron Age. On the light of pollen records, this change does not seem to be related to a contemporary change in local wood availability as beech forests were already present in the area from the Bronze Age. Besides, the higher diversity of heliophilous taxa, the increasing trend of the oak fc. charcoal average tree ring width and the proliferation of sites reporting more than 10 % of small coals - i.e. branches, twigs - reveal a heterogeneous vegetation context which included a low undergrowth cover like as hedges and thickets. Such environmental diversification reported from the early Iron Age, which is further stressed from the second Iron Age, corroborates the land use pattern documented in the Basse Auvergne from this age to the Roman period. This shows a progressively denser settlement with a land plot network and vittae. Anthracological analyses presented in this article are a series of particular case-studies which interpreted all together enable us to define the timber resource management history of the Basse Auvergne from the Neolithic to the Roman period.

Bertran P.,INRAP | Bertran P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Klaric L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lenoble A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

During the Last Glaciation, Western Europe witnessed recurrent millennial-scale episodes of periglacial climates, that had significant impact on Palaeolithic site preservation. After a review on the genesis and climatic meaning of sorted patterned grounds, examples of polygons, stripes and stone-banked solifluction lobes taken from archaeological contexts are described. Sorted features in Palaeolithic sites imply that caution should be taken in site patterning analysis for reconstructing past human behaviours, since spatial alteration of the original anthropogenic pattern took place. On low gradients, artefact movements remain limited but may increase dramatically on slopes when solifluction adds to sorting processes. Although these features are widespread in modern periglacial environments, archaeological examples remain scarce. Multiple factors are probably involved, including lack of knowledge of periglacial processes and landforms by archaeologists leading to misinterpretation, but also more or less complete obliteration of surface features by sedimentary processes upon burial. However, it is assumed that scarcity of clear anthropogenic patterning in French Palaeolithic sites before the Late Glacial is due for a large part to post-depositional disturbance by periglacial processes.

Pagnoux C.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Celant A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Coubray S.,INRAP | Fiorentino G.,University of Salento | Zech-Matterne V.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2013

While some consensus exists about the roles of southwestern China and northeastern India in the origin and diversification of the genus Citrus, the scarcity of its archaeological remains, as well as some methodological limits in unequivocally identifying taxa, do not facilitate reconstruction of the tempo and mode of spread of the genus towards other areas, notably the Mediterranean. Recent discoveries of archaeobotanical macro-remains (seeds and fruits) and pollen records from some important Italian sites in the Vesuvius area and Rome can be used to shed new light on this history. However, due to their morphological variability and the changes derived from the preservation processes, Citrus seeds appear difficult to recognise. In this paper, we present criteria to facilitate their precise identification, based on the observation of the morphology of modern seeds, and most of all the seed-coat patterns. The reference material consisted of "archaic" varieties of C. medica L. (citron), C. × limon (L.) Burm. f. (lemon) and seeds of C. × aurantium L. (bitter or Seville orange), C. × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (lime) and C. reticulata Blanco (tangerine, mandarin orange). Considering the fact that the general morphology of seeds, especially when mineralised, can confuse the identification of Citrus with Maloideae types, we also add criteria for the recognition of Cydonia oblonga Mill. (quince), Malus domestica Borkh. (apple), Pyrus communis L. (pear), Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz (whitebeam) and S. domestica L. (service tree). The observation of the keels and cell patterns was mostly useful to identify new material from Pompeii and Rome dating from the 3rd/2nd century b.c. and the Augustan period around the beginning of the Common (Christian) Era as C. medica L. (citron) and C. cf. × limon (L.) Burm. f. (possible lemon). The classical Greek and Latin sources helped us to understand the use and status of citrus fruits in the ancient world and, in combination with all available archaeobotanical remains compiled in this paper, have allowed us to discuss the spread of Citrus from its regions of origin to the eastern Mediterranean and then within the Mediterranean. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

A skeleton from the Late Roman period, recovered in Amiens, northern France, exhibits multiple symmetrical marginal erosions, primarily involving the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. Other skeletal changes include erosions of several peripheral joints and some entheses, and severe osteoporosis. Macroscopic and radiological aspects of the lesions, as well as the absence of spinal and sacroiliac joints involvement, are consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Differential diagnosis includes other erosive arthropathies, in particular the diseases belonging to the spondyloarthropathy group. This case provides a new evidence of the presence of rheumatoid arthritis in Western Europe long before the colonisation of the Americas by Europeans. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Van Doorn N.L.,University of York | Wilson J.,University of York | Hollund H.,VU University Amsterdam | Soressi M.,Inrap | And 2 more authors.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Ratione: Non-enzymatic deamidation accumulates in aging tissues in vivo and has been proposed to be potentially useful as a molecular clock. The process continues post mortem, and here we explore the increase in levels of deamidation in archaeological collagen, as measured during Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS) analysis. Methods: With the high sensitivity of current generation mass spectrometers, ZooMS provides a non-destructive and highly cost-effective method to characterise collagen peptides. Deamidation can be detected by mass spectrometry as a +0.984 Da mass shift; therefore, aside from its original purpose, peptide mass-fingerprinting for bone identification, ZooMS concurrently yields a 'thermal indicator' of the samples. RESULTS: By analysis of conventional ZooMS spectra, we determined the deamidation rate for glutamine residues in 911 bone collagen samples from 50 sites, with ages varying from medieval to Palaeolithic. The degree of deamidation was compared to diagenetic parameters and nearby sequence properties. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of deamidation was found to be influenced more by burial conditions and thermal age than, for example, chronological age, the extent of bioerosion or crystallinity. The method lends itself mostly to screening heterogenic deposits of bone to identify outliers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

News Article | December 2, 2015

A heart-shaped lead urn with an inscription identifying the contents as the heart of Toussaint Perrien, Knight of Brefeillac, found during excavation of the ruins of the medieval Jacobins convent in Rennes, France is shown in this handout photo provided by Rozenn Colleter on December 2, 2015. REUTERS/Rozenn Colleter/Ph.D./INRAP/Handout via Reuters More WASHINGTON (Reuters) - In the ruins of a medieval convent in the French city of Rennes, archaeologists discovered five heart-shaped urns made of lead, each containing an embalmed human heart. Now, roughly four centuries after they were buried, researchers have used modern science to study these old hearts. It turns out three of them bore tell-tale signs of a heart disease very common today. "Every heart was different and revealed its share of surprises," anthropologist Rozenn Colleter of the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research said on Wednesday. "Four of these hearts are very well preserved. It is very rare in archaeology to work on organic materials. The prospects are very exciting." One heart appeared healthy, with no evidence of disease. Three others showed indications of disease, atherosclerosis, with plaque in the coronary arteries. The fifth was poorly preserved. "Only one heart belonged to a women, and was totally degraded, permitting no study," said radiologist Dr. Fatima-Zohra Mokrane of Rangueil Hospital at the University Hospital of Toulouse. One of hearts belonged to a nobleman identified by an inscription on the urn as Toussaint Perrien, Knight of Brefeillac, who died in 1649. His heart had been removed upon his death and was later buried with his wife, Louise de Quengo, Lady of Brefeillac, who died in 1656. Her wonderfully preserved body was found in a coffin at the site, still wearing a cape, wool dress, bonnet and leather shoes with cork soles. The earliest of the urns was dated 1584. The latest was dated 1655. Mokrane said an important aspect of the study was the finding that people hundreds of years ago had atherosclerosis. It is a disease in which plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances builds up inside the arteries. Plaque hardens over time and narrows the arteries. Atherosclerosis can trigger heart attacks and strokes. "Atherosclerosis is not only a recent pathology, because it was found in different hearts studied," Mokrane said. The researchers cleaned each of the hearts, removed the embalming material and examined them with MRI imaging, CT scans and other methods. Archaeologists excavated the Jacobins convent in Rennes from 2011 to 2013. It was constructed in 1369 and became an important pilgrimage and burial site from the 15th to 17th centuries. About 800 graves were found, Colleter said. The research was presented at a meeting of the Radiological Society of North America in Chicago.

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