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Catteau L.,Catholic University of Louvain | Lautie E.,Catholic University of Louvain | Kone O.,Catholic University of Louvain | Coppee M.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The purpose of this research is to screen different processes that could potentially decrease or even eliminate rotenone, a toxic isoflavonoid, from Pachyrhizus seeds. Yam bean seeds have very interesting nutritional characteristics, especially their high protein and lipid contents, and could potentially increase food security in under-nourished populations. However, they contain rotenone, a natural molecule previously used as an insecticide inhibiting the respiratory mitochondrial chain. It was also proven to be toxic to mammals as chronic exposure leads to the development of Parkinson-like symptoms in rats. As the thermosensitivity of rotenone had been reported, this study tested different processes (drying, roasting, boiling, frying, alcohol extraction), tegument removal, and traditional Beninese culinary recipes. Rotenone was then quantified in end-products by a validated method, associating microwave extraction, solid phase extraction (SPE), and HPLC-UV. With these processes a rotenone removal of up to 80% was obtained. The most effective methods were the drying and roasting of the seeds and the maceration of their flour in local alcohol. Rotenone degradation and elimination were confirmed by cytotoxic assays, effectively inducing a decrease in sample toxicity. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Kone B.,University of Benin | Amadji G.L.,UAC | Aliou S.,UAC | Diatta S.,University of Benin | Akakpo C.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin INRAB
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science

With the objective of improving rice productivity and generating additional knowledge on rice production in Africa, field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons of 2005 and 2006 in Southern Benin. Terre de barre soils at the WARDA experimental station and Niaouli, and the plinthic Ferralsols of Cana were investigated. A complete fertilizer (Fc) composed of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn was used to assess NERICA.4 (upland rice) root development and grain yield (GY). Similar observations were made in treatments with a specific nutrient excluded from Fc (Fc-N, Fc-P, Fc-K, Fc-Ca, Fc-Mg and Fc-Zn). A grain yield of up to 1.4 t ha-1 (Fc-N) and higher root densities for Fc and Fc-Mg at 20-60 cm were attained. Maximum reductions in yield and rooting depth were observed for Fc-P (27%, 27%), Fc-K (30%, 14%) and Fc-Zn (32%, 2%). Drought occurrence, a high C/N ratio and soil acidity influence the effects of nutrients on rice. Removal of N from basal fertilizer was recommended to reduce the effect of mid-season drought. It is suggested that the critical level of K in the soils of West Africa be adjusted to 0.40 cmol kg-1 for upland rice. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Singbo A.G.,Wageningen University | Singbo A.G.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin INRAB | Lansink A.O.,Wageningen University
Food Security

This paper uses a directional distance function and a single truncated bootstrap approach to investigate inefficiency of lowland farming systems in the Benin Republic. First, we employed a dual approach to estimate and decompose short-run profit inefficiency of each farming system into pure technical, allocative and scale inefficiency and also into input and output inefficiency. Second, an econometric analysis of factors affecting the inefficiency was generated using a single truncated bootstrap procedure to improve inefficiency analysis statistically and obtain consistent estimates. In the short run, scale, allocative and output inefficiency were found to be the main sources of inefficiency. Based on inefficiency results, the inefficiency of lowland farming systems is the most diverse. Compared to a vegetable farming system, technical inefficiency is significantly higher if farmers switch to a rice farming system. Scale, allocative, output, and input inefficiency are significantly lower with an integrated rice-vegetable farming system and there was high prevalence of increasing returns to scale in the integrated rice-vegetable farming system. Water control and lowland farming systems are complements and play a significant role in the level of inefficiency. Input inefficiency shows the difficulty that the producers face in adjusting the quality and quantity of seeds and fertilizers. The paper provides empirical support for efforts to promote an integrated rice-vegetable farming system in West Africa lowlands to increase food security. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Dougnon T.J.,Laboratoire Of Recherches En Biologie Appliquee Larba | Aboh B.A.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin INRAB | Kpodekon T.M.,Laboratoire Of Recherches En Biologie Appliquee Larba
Livestock Research for Rural Development

The aims of this study is to develop fodder of Moringa oleifera and Leucaena leucocephala as proteins source in the concentrate in pellets to feed cricétomes (Cricetomys gambianus) reared in narrow captivity. Almost,¶ 24 growing male cricétomes with 316±9.5g average live weights, grouped into three batches of eight were used. The experimentation lasted of 94 days. ¶The results indicate that the average consumption of the concentrates in pellet represents 5.2 % of the live weight. Feed digestibility varying from 57.4 to 62.8 %. The live weight gain of cricétomes is better with concentrate containing Moringa oleifera (5.5 g/j). ¶The average consumption index recorded do not present significant differences (value however lower with cricétomes that diet containing Moringa oleifera). ¶It arises, that the incorporation of Moringa oleifera or of Moringa oleifera and Leucaena leucocephala in the concentrate in pellets presents high performance for the breeding of cricétomes in narrow captivity. ¶This technology could be tested by the breeders. Source

Togbe C.E.,University Abomey Calavi | Togbe C.E.,Wageningen University | Vodouhe S.D.,University Abomey Calavi | Gbehounou G.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin INRAB | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability

The immediate consequences of the 2009 reform of the cotton sector in Benin are assessed from the farmers' perspective. Using a policy arrangements approach, we analyse how farmers experienced the transformations brought about by the reform and how it influenced their day-to-day activities. The new farmer cooperatives established after the reform were trusted by farmers. Many farmers returned to the sector, increasing cotton output. Nevertheless, productivity remained low, around 900 kg/ha, probably because the reform addressed mainly institutional constraints. Technical constraints relating to varietal choice, soil fertility improvement, and pest management were neglected. The policy arrangements emerging from the reform still generate discussion, in particular about the way actors and coalitions are organized. The top-down approach of the reform process has limitations for problem-solving, especially where actors' interests collide. The adjustments made under the reform with regard to farmer-based organizations and actors from public services, the caution solidaire, and farmers' supervision proved inappropriate for solving the institutional problems posed at the nodes of actors and coalitions, resources, discourses, and institutions, thereby further undermining the cotton sector. A mix of technological and institutional reforms might offer a more effective option for the future. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

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