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El Khroub, Algeria

Ceccarelli S.,ICARDA BIGM | Grando S.,ICARDA BIGM | Maatougui M.,ICARDA BIGM | Michael M.,ICARDA BIGM | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2010

Climate change is now unequivocal, particularly in terms of increasing temperature, increasing CO2 concentration, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level, while the increase in the frequency of drought is very probable but not as certain. However, climate changes are not new and some of them have had dramatic impacts, such as the appearance of leaves about 400 million years ago as a response to a drastic decrease in CO2 concentration, the birth of agriculture due to the end of the last ice age about 11 000 years ago and the collapse of civilizations due to the late Holocene droughts between 5000 and 1000 years ago. The climate changes that are occurring at present will have - and are already having - an adverse effect on food production and food quality with the poorest farmers and the poorest countries most at risk. The adverse effect is a consequence of the expected or probable increased frequency of some abiotic stresses such as heat and drought, and of the increased frequency of biotic stresses (pests and diseases). In addition, climate change is also expected to cause losses of biodiversity, mainly in more marginal environments. Plant breeding has addressed both abiotic and biotic stresses. Strategies of adaptation to climate changes may include a more accurate matching of phenology to moisture availability using photoperiod-temperature response, increased access to a suite of varieties with different duration to escape or avoid predictable occurrences of stress at critical periods in crop life cycles, improved water use efficiency and a re-emphasis on population breeding in the form of evolutionary participatory plant breeding to provide a buffer against increasing unpredictability. ICARDA, in collaboration with scientists in Iran, Algeria, Jordan, Eritrea and Morocco, has recently started evolutionary participatory programmes for barley and durum wheat. These measures will go hand in hand with breeding for resistance to biotic stresses and with an efficient system of variety delivery to farmers. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

Mebarkia A.,Ferhat Abbas University Setif | Abbas K.,INRAA
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

The experiment was conducted during two cropping seasons (2001/2002 and 2002/2003), with the objective to study the Phenology and agronomic performances of the fifteen ecotypes of the species (Vicia narbonensis L.) under the agro-climatic conditions of the semi-arid region of Setif. The various phenological stages of the plant, the fodder and grains yields and several characters relating to the quality of seeds were measured. The results obtained show large diversity among phenological ecotypes of Vicia narbonensis L. The ecotype 2466 is very early for the beginning of flowering, for full flowering, for the beginning of pods formation and for complete maturity. In contrast, ecotype 2390 is the latest for all the phonological stages measured. Concerning forage and grain production, the statistical analysis showed highly significant differences between ecotypes. The best fodder and grain productions are reported for the late flowering ecotypes. Ecotype 2390 produced average values of 2.5 ton dry matter ha-1 of fodder and 16.9 quintals ha-1 of grains. The fodder and grain yields were correlated positively (p<0.05) with the number of days to the full flowering, which guides the selection towards the late ecotypes. Highly significant differences were observed for total nitrogen and fat contents of seeds (p<0.01). Ecotypes 2393 and 2467 produced the highest concentrations in fat (1.2%) and the ecotype 2462 produced 33.6% in total nitrogen. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Mebarkia A.,Ferhat Abbas University Setif | Abbas K.,INRAA | Slimani A.,University of El Taref
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

We studied the dry matter yield, grain yield and yield components of ecotype 2388 of Vicia narbonensis L. using three seeding rates and three levels of phosphorus. The experiment was conducted during two crop years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 in the Agricultural Technology Institute located in the semi arid region of Setif in Algeria. The experimental design adopted was a complete randomized block with three repetitions. Phosphorus levels used are 60, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and seeding rates are 40, 60 and 80 seeds m2. Analysis of variance indicates that the dry matter yield, grain yield and agronomic traits were significantly affected by the density and phosphorus levels. Using the rate of 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus results in average yields very important of dry matter of about 45.61 qx ha-1, grain yield of 15.60 qx ha-1, plants highest of 60.84 cm and a length of pods best of 5.19 cm. Density of 80 m2 grains has spawned better grain yields of 15.48 and 47.62 qx ha-1 of dry matter. However, the number of seeds per pod and weight of 100 seeds were affected differently. The low density of 40 seeds m2 recorded the most important weight of 100 seeds of 16.46 g and a number of seeds per pod high of about 4.94. Significant positive correlations were observed between grain yield and plant height (r = 0.825) and dry matter yield (r = 0.715) and negatively correlated with the number of grains per pod (r = -0.654, p<0.05). © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

During the drought period 1998-2002, Opuntia experienced substantial development in North Africa as a means of diversifying and complementing the feeding system. In this article, we seek to understand the role of Opuntia in the household economy of one village community in Algeria. We ask three questions: (i) does the development of Opuntia (as an innovation) allows faster live animal stocking; (ii) does it reduce the cereal production; (iii) does it lead to a reduction in inequalities inside the village community? To answer these questions, we conducted a farm survey on a panel sample (two periods, from 2002 to 2003) and developed a micro-simulation model, which makes it possible to highlight intragroup heterogeneity. The main results of this research indicate that public policy support, which facilitates the development of Opuntia, will probably induce a livestock accumulation in the small-scale farms and an increase in cereal production for all producers. However, we do not see large modifications in the distribution of the resources within the community. Indeed, the intragroup inequality seems to persist, linked mainly to the initial endowments. Source

Issolah R.,INRAA | Tahar A.,Annaba University | Alane F.,British Petroleum | Sadi S.,Laboratoire central | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

As part of the evaluation and the development of plant genetic resources of fodder and pastoral interest in Algeria, ten populations of sulla (Sulla coronaria (L.) Medik. Syn. Hedysarum coronarium L.) were subject to an assessment. The growth and the chemical composition of the populations were analyzed in this framework. The field trial is a randomized complete block design with four replications. Several parameters (seeds thousand weight, emergence of seedlings, number of plants per square meter, maximum height, maximum width, bloom, cutting date, green matter, dry matter, mineral matter, organic matter, crude fiber, fat, phosphorus, calcium, total nitrogen, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), lignin, hemicellulose) have been determined. Two ecological factors (altitude, rainfall) were also taken into account. The variance analysis indicated a significant variation between the populations regarding eight variables linked to the growth and the chemical composition of the plant. Many significant relationships were also highlighted. The results of the correlation matrix indicated also that the total nitrogen content is negatively correlated with the number of plants per square meter and the final height. Overall, the results of principal component analysis showed a good distribution of variables, particularly, the final width, the hemicellulose and the NDF. The descriptive analysis signalized also the part of the altitude and the rainfall characterizing the natural habitats of the populations. This study permitted a better understanding of the nature of variation established within this species. Sulla can play a significant role in the socio-economic and environmental development of rural communities. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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