Renaudeau D.,INRA UR143 |
Renaudeau D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Brochain J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Giorgi M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 5 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014
The main objective of the present work was to determine the nutritional value and the strategies of using green banana meal (BM) in growing pigs. Two trials involving a total of 96 growing pigs were designed to study the effect of the harvest stage on the nutritional and energy values of BM (trial 1) and to evaluate the consequence of feeding gradual levels of BM on growth performance and feeding behavior in growing pigs (trial 2). In trial 1, the digestive utilization of three diets including 40% BM were compared with a control (C) soybean meal-corn diet in two batches of 12 pigs. BM was obtained from fruits harvested at 750 degrees-days (DD; early harvesting stage), 900 DD (normal harvesting stage) and 1150 DD (late harvesting stage). In trial 2, 72 Large White pigs were grouped in pens of nine animals and were given ad libitum access to one of the four dietary treatments (two pens/diet) differing from the rate of inclusion of 900 DD BM (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). The estimated energy apparent digestibility coefficients of BM increased with the harvest stage (75.5%, 80.7% and 83.2% for BM at 750, 900 and 1150 DD, respectively). Digestible energy and metabolizable energy values were higher for BM at 1150 DD (13.56 and 13.05 MJ/kg DM, respectively) than at 900 DD (13.11 and 12.75 MJ/kg DM, respectively) or at 750 DD (12.00 and 11.75 MJ/kg DM, respectively). In trial 2, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P>0.05) by the rate of BM inclusion (822 g/day and 2.75 kg/kg on average, respectively). Feed intake and feeding behavior parameters were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments except for the rate of feed ingestion with a lower value for the diet with 40% of BM (27.4 v. 32.2 g/min on average; P<0.01) when compared with the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the energy value of BM increases with the harvest stage and that BM can be incorporated up to 60% in growing finishing pig diets. © The Animal Consortium 2014.
Salah N.,INRA UR143 |
Salah N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Sauvant D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Archimede H.,INRA UR143
Animal | Year: 2014
The objective of the study was to update energy and protein requirements of growing sheep, goats and cattle in warm areas through a meta-analysis study of 590 publications. Requirements were expressed on metabolic live weight (MLW=LW0.75) and LW1 basis. The maintenance requirements for energy were 542.64 and 631.26 kJ ME/kg LW0.75 for small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The corresponding requirement for 1 g gain was 24.3 kJ ME without any significant effect of species. Relative to LW0.75, there was no difference among genotypes intra-species in terms of ME requirement for maintenance and gain. However, small ruminants of warm and tropical climate appeared to have higher ME requirements for maintenance relative to live weight (LW) compared with temperate climate ones and cattle. Maintenance requirements for protein were estimated via two approaches. For these two methods, the data in which retained nitrogen (RN) was used cover the same range of variability of observations. The regression of digestible CP intake (DCPI, g/kg LW0.75) against RN (g/kg LW0.75) indicated that DCP requirements are significantly higher in sheep (3.36 g/kg LW0.75) than in goats (2.38 g/kg LW 0.75), with cattle intermediate (2.81 g/kg LW0.75), without any significant difference in the quantity of DCPI/g retained CP (RCP) (40.43). Regressing metabolisable protein (MP) or minimal digestible protein in the intestine (PDImin) against RCP showed that there was no difference between species and genotypes, neither for the intercept (maintenance=3.51 g/kg LW 0.75 for sheep and goat v. 4.35 for cattle) nor for the slope (growth=0.60 g MP/g RCP). The regression of DCP against ADG showed that DCP requirements did not differ among species or genotypes. These new feeding standards are derived from a wider range of nutritional conditions compared with existing feeding standards as they are based on a larger database. The standards seem to be more appropriate for ruminants in warm and tropical climates around the world. © 2014 The Animal Consortium.
Renaudeau D.,INRA UR143 |
Gourdine J.L.,INRA UR143 |
St-Pierre N.R.,Ohio State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011
High ambient temperature (T) is oneof the most important climatic factors influencing pigperformance. Increased T occurs sporadically duringsummer heat waves in temperate climates and yearround in tropical climates. Results of published experimentsassessing the effects of high T on pig performanceare surprisingly variable. Thus, a meta-analysiswas performed to aggregate our knowledge and attemptto explain differences in the results across studies onthe effect of increased T on ADFI and ADG in growingfinishingpigs. Data for ADFI and ADG were extractedfrom 86 and 80 trials, respectively, from articles publishedin scientific journals indexed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and from proceedings of scientific meetingsthrough November 2009. Data on ADFI and ADG wereanalyzed using a linear mixed model that included thelinear and the quadratic effects of T and BW, and theirinteractions as continuous, fixed effects variables, andthe trial as a random effect factor (i.e., block). In addition,the effects of housing type (2 levels: individualand group housing) and the year of publication (3 levels:1970 to 1989, 1990 to 1999, and 2000 to 2009) onthe intercept and the linear regression term for T (i.e.,the slope) were also tested. Results showed that highT had a curvilinear effect on ADFI and ADG and thatthis effect was more pronounced in heavier pigs. AcrossT, ADFI was less when pigs were group-housed. Theintercept and the regression coefficient (slope) for Twere significantly affected by the year of publication.The effect of increased T was greater in more contemporaryworks, suggesting that modern genotypes couldbe more sensitive to heat stress than older genotypes oflesser growth potential. In conclusion, pig performancedecreases at an accelerating rate as T is increased. Thelarge between-study variability on the effects of high Ton pig performance is partially explained by differencesin pig BW and to a lesser extent by the year the studywas published. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Waltz X.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana |
Waltz X.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne |
Baillot M.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana |
Connes P.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana |
And 6 more authors.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation | Year: 2014
The main objectives of the present work were to test the effects of heat stress on blood rheology and to determine whether the responses can change according to the pig breeds. Thirty-six pigs from three pig's lines (n = 12 for each line) with assumed different tolerance to heat stress were compared: Large White (LW, little tolerance), Creole (CR, good tolerance) and LW × CR pigs (produced from a cross between LW and CR lines). In a first period, all pigs were exposed to a 9-d period of thermo-neutral environment (24°C; d-9 to d-1; P0). At the end of P0, six pigs from each line were slaughtered (n = 18). Then in a second period, the remaining pigs (6/breed; n = 18) were exposed to a 5-d period of heat stress (32°C; d + 1 - d + 5; P1) and thereafter slaughtered at d + 5. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory rate, were recorded on d-1 and d + 5. At slaughter, blood was sampled for hematological and hemorheological measurements. Heat stress caused a rise of the skin temperature and respiratory rate without any changes in the rectal temperature or on the hematological and hemorheological parameters when all pigs' lines were considered. We observed a pig line effect on blood viscosity at high shear rate (375 s-1) and red blood cell deformability at 30 Pa with CR pigs having lower blood viscosity and higher red blood cell deformability than LW pigs. While the changes of blood viscosity under heat stress did not reach statistical significance in LW and CR lines, blood viscosity (at 375 s-1) increased above the temperate values in the LW × CR line. Red blood cell deformability at 30 Pa was higher in CR pigs exposed to heat stress compared to LW pigs in the same condition. In conclusion, thermal loading caused physiological stress but did not widely change the hematological and hemorheological profiles. Although some blood rheological parameters seem to vary with the pig breeds, the responses to heat stress are very similar. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors.