Alexandre G.,INRA UR 143 |
Gonzalez-Garcia E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Lallo C.H.O.,University of the West Indies |
Ortega-Jimenez E.,Colegio de Mexico |
And 4 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010
Animal output is a complex set of activities dependent upon interrelated abiotic, biotic and socio-economic factors. Increasing reproductive performances, reducing mortality rate, accelerating growth rate and improving carcass merit or milk quality are multiple and interdependent objectives. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to characterise animals and systems for the different interrelated production traits. Setting priorities and implementing research within development projects are better accomplished through the farming system concept and holistic approach of interrelated factors of variation. This paper outlines the interest of the farming system approach and a general framework of the variable factors in goat performances. From these, guidelines are proposed for piloting the whole system through reproductive management, matching the system to available feed resources, implementing an integrated health control protocol, and adapting the breeding improvement approach to the local sector's characteristics. The second part of this paper presents case studies gathered from different experiences in countries of the Caribbean basin (sensus largo). These deal with climatic effects, the use of a male-effect, the use of forage trees and shrubs and integrated health control. The focus lies on both meat and goat milk production in the Caribbean basin. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eugene M.,INRA UR 143 |
Sauvant D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Weisbecker J.L.,INRA 1264 |
Archimede H.,INRA UR 143
Animal | Year: 2010
The effects of defaunation on growth and digestion were measured in sheep fed fresh Digitaria decumbens grass cut at four stages of regrowth 14, 28, 42, and 56 days, and with different protein to energy (P/E) ratios. Two completely randomized designs trials (growth and digestion) were conducted using faunated animals, defaunated rams and protozoa free lambs. The digestion trial: eight faunated and eight defaunated rams fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were fed 4 diets (diets D1 to D4) to measure digestion parameters. The dietary P/E ratios were 120 (D1), 130 (D2), 130 (D3), and 140 (D4) g PDIN/UFL (Protein Digested in the small Intestine supplied by microbial protein from rumen-degraded protein/Feed Unit for Lactation) and the grass stages of regrowth were 56, 42, 28, and 14 days, respectively. Increasing the dietary P/E ratios increased dry matter intake (DMI) and the total tract digestibility of organic matter (OM), NDF and CP. Defaunation decreased DMI, except for rams fed D4 diet. Defaunation also decreased total tract digestibility of OM except for rams fed D1 diet and that of NDF except for rams fed D1 and D4 diets. Increasing the dietary P/E ratios also increased nitrogen intake and ammonia (NH3) concentration in the rumen, whereas defaunation decreased them. The dietary P/E ratio increased non-NH3 nitrogen and microbial nitrogen duodenal flows and microbial efficiency. Defaunation did not affect duodenal flows of neither non-NH3 nitrogen and microbial nitrogen or microbial efficiency. The growth trial: 20 faunated and 20 protozoa free lambs were fed four diets (diets D5 to D8) to measure their average daily gain (ADG). The dietary P/E ratios were 60 (D5), 70 (D6), 80 (D7) and 100 (D8) g PDIN/UFL and the stages of regrowth were 56, 42, 28, and 14 days, respectively. DMI of lambs increased with P/E ratio. Protozoa free lambs had greater DMI than faunated ones when fed D7 diet (80.8 v. 74.9 g/kg LW0.75, respectively). The ADG of the lambs increased with P/E ratio. Fed on the same D5 diet, protozoa free lambs had greater ADG than faunated lambs (29.8 v. 11.6 g/day, respectively). In conclusion, animal response to defaunation was modulated by the P/E ratio of the D. decumbens grass diets. Defaunation increased ADG of lambs fed forage with the lowest P/E ratio, while digestion and nitrogen duodenal flows of rams fed the lowest P/E ratio were not affected. © 2010 The Animal Consortium.