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Bohm M.,King Edward Veterinary Referral Hospital | Henderson H.,UCT | van der Zwan H.,Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd | Basson S.,Drs Visser
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Year: 2014

L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria is an autosomal recessive error of metabolism that manifests as an encephalopathy. The most common presenting signs are seizures, tremors, ataxia and/or dementia. Some affected dogs show only subtle behavioural changes. Amongst canines, the condition has been best described in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Although this is the first reported case in South Africa, at least three other affected dogs have been indentified by polmerase chain reaction (PCR) in this country. Affected dogs have normal haematology, serum biochemistry and routine urine analysis. This report discusses the advantages and limitations of the three main diagnostic modalities, namely: magnetic resonance imaging, urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and genetic testing. The aim of this report is to increase awareness of the condition, assist diagnosis in encephalopathic dogs and improve detection of carriers amongst breeding stock. © 2014. The Authors. Source


Labuschagne C.,University of the Free State | Labuschagne C.,Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd | Nupen L.,National Zoological Gardens of South Africa | Nupen L.,University of Cape Town | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species is traditionally based on pedigree information derived from studbook data. However, molecular methods could provide a powerful set of complementary tools to verify studbook records and also contribute to improving the understanding of the genetic status of captive populations. Here, we compare the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites (MS) and two analytical methods for assigning parentage in ten families of captive African penguins held in South African facilities. We found that SNPs performed better than microsatellites under both analytical frameworks, but a combination of all markers was most informative. A subset of combined SNP (n = 14) and MS loci (n = 10) provided robust assessments of parentage. Captive or supportive breeding programs will play an important role in future African penguin conservation efforts as a source of individuals for reintroduction. Cooperation among these captive facilities is essential to facilitate this process and improve management. This study provided us with a useful set of SNP and MS markers for parentage and relatedness testing among these captive populations. Further assessment of the utility of these markers over multiple (>3) generations and the incorporation of a larger variety of relationships among individuals (e.g., half-siblings or cousins) is strongly suggested. © 2015 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Labuschagne C.,University of the Free State | Labuschagne C.,Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd | Dalton D.L.,University of the Free State | Kotze A.,University of the Free State
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2012

We report the characterization of 30 new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for an endangered species, the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus), based on screening of a random genomic library. The polymorphisms of these SNP loci were assessed using a captive population comprising 34 individuals. The minor allele frequency ranged from 2. 17 to 42. 65 and the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0. 1 to 0. 6897 and from 0. 0435 to 0. 4965, respectively. None of the loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These SNP markers will provide a necessary addition to the genetic tools employed for understanding population structure and for developing a conservation management strategy for this endangered species. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Labuschagne C.,University of the Free State | Labuschagne C.,Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd | Kotze A.,University of the Free State | Paul Grobler J.,University of the Free State | Dalton D.L.,University of the Free State
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2013

We report the characterization of 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum), based on a targeted gene approach. The polymorphisms of these SNP loci were assessed using a captive population comprising 30 individuals. The minor allele frequency ranged from 0. 256 to 0. 413 and the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0. 05 to 0. 37 and from 0. 05 to 0. 49, respectively. An understanding of genetic population structure is required to effectively formulate strategies for conservation and/or management. These SNP markers could be employed to provide estimates of parameters such as population structure, relatedness and current and historical gene flow. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Labuschagne C.,University of the Free State | Labuschagne C.,Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd | van Wyk A.M.,National Zoological Gardens of South Africa | Kotze A.,University of the Free State | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2013

Eight microsatellite markers were developed via pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library for the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus). These microsatellite loci displayed 2-6 alleles with expected heterozygosity values ranging between 0. 316 and 0. 782 and observed heterozygosity between 0. 381 and 0. 84. These loci may be suitable for assessing patterns of genetic variability in African penguin. This is the first development of species-specific markers for the African penguin. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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