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Falls Church, VA, United States

Baraki Y.M.,INOVA Fairfax Hospital
Surgical technology international | Year: 2010

Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a surgical procedure that includes a longitudinal lateral gastrectomy to reduce food intake by reducing the capacity of the stomach. The technique of SG as a primary procedure has evolved since it was first introduced in 2001. Some perform the SG over smaller bougie sizes (30-40 Fr) or an NG tube. Some begin the SG near the pylorus (2 cm) while others avoid the antral/pyloric area. Establishing the mass or volume of stomach remaining is subject to limitations associated with the in vivo status. However, quantifying the amount (mass) of stomach removed is definitively an objective measure. The study was conducted to determine the relationship between the amount of stomach excised and the patient's gender and preoperative weight and height. Data was collected prospectively and was compiled in a review of 165 (136 Female and 29 Male) patients who underwent laparoscopic SG from December 7, 2001 to March 18, 2004 by a single surgeon at three institutions using the same technique for performance and measurement. The empty weight and capacity of resected stomach specimens were measured intra-operatively and subsequently correlated with the patient's gender, preoperative weight, and height. The mean height of male patients was 179.7+/-7.1 (CM) and the mean height of female patients was 165.1+/-7.1(CM). The mean weight of stomach tissue removed from male patients was 160.3±29.4 (G) and from female patients was 123.5±40.4 (G). The difference in height and weight between men and women was statistically significant (P-value<0.0001). The empty stomach weight and capacity both are linearly related to each other (R-square=0.9292, P-value<.0001). There is evidence showing the statistically significant correlation among preoperative height, gender, and preoperative weight and amount of stomach removed. For the average height patient, removal of gastric tissue weighing less than 160 grams in males and 120 grams in females may indicate an inadequate resection. This removes a stomach capacity of approximately 1600 cc's and 1200 cc's respectively. Source

King Jr. T.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Albera C.,University of Turin | Bradford W.Z.,InterMune Inc. | Costabel U.,Ruhrlandklinik | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: FVC has emerged as a standard primary endpoint in clinical trials evaluating novel therapies for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, it has recently been proposed that all-cause mortality or a composite comprised of all-cause mortality and all-cause nonelective hospitalization be adopted as the standard primary endpoint for IPF clinical trials. Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of mortality in three phase 3 clinical trials and evaluate the feasibility of mortality trials in patients with IPF. Methods: The study population included 622 patients randomized to placebo in the CAPACITY studies evaluating pirfenidone (n = 347) or the INSPIRE study evaluating interferon-g1b (n = 275). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of 2-year survival was fit to the exponential distribution and used to calculate sample size requirements for a mortality study with 90% power to detect a 25% reduction in all-cause mortality with a two-sided a of 0.05. Modeling analyses were used to assess the effects of selected variables on sample size and study design. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 73 deaths occurred during the period of observation (mean duration of follow-up, 80.1 wk). The all-cause mortality rate was 6.6% at 1 year and 13.7% at 2 years. Based on the observed 2-year mortality rate, a total of 508 events would be required to detect a significant treatment benefit in a two-arm trial with 90% power to detect a 25% reduction in all-cause mortality. The estimated sample size for a trial enrolled over 3 years with a maximum follow-up period of 5 years is 2,582 patients. Conclusions: The all-cause mortality rate is relatively low in patients with IPF with mild to moderate impairment in lung function. Accordingly, the necessary size, duration, and cost of all-cause mortality trials in this population are substantial and likely prohibitive. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Childers E.L.B.,Howard University | Fanburg-Smith J.C.,INOVA Fairfax Hospital
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2011

Congenital epulis of the newborn (CEN) is a rare benign lesion that exclusively occurs in the oral and maxillofacial regions of newborns. The clinicopathologic features of CEN were examined and reviewed from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from 1970 to 2000. Ten cases were included. Patient lesions were all present at birth but were surgically excised between 2 days and 6 weeks (median, 5.5 days). Nine lesions were in females; 1 case did not designate patient sex. Locations included 6 on the maxilla, 2 on the mandible, 1 on the designated maxillary lip, and 1 unknown. The cases included a patient with 2 lesions: 1 on mandibular and 1 on maxillary alveolar ridges, respectively. All other lesions were solitary and polypoid. Microscopically, these were pedunculated and nodular, composed of sheets to grouped clusters of medium-sized, ovoid-to-polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, vascular-rich stroma, and attenuated overlying mucosa. Two cases also demonstrated spindled cells. The nuclei were vesicular and focally stippled, with distinct and slightly convoluted nuclear membranes; nucleoli were visible but not prominent. Mitotic activity was not observed. The vascular channels ranged from capillary-sized to venous, some staghorn-like with rare perivascular long-term inflammation. The venules exhibited a perivascular pericytic proliferation. Odontogenic epithelial rests were present in 2 cases. No cases demonstrated cytoplasmic hyaline globules. The lesional cells in all cases were negative for S-100 protein, CD68, CD34, CD31, keratins, desmin, calponin, and smooth muscle actin. Perivenular pericytes were positive for smooth muscle actin. Congenital epulis of the newborn is a rare oral entity with characteristic clinicopathologic features. It predominately affects girls, mainly on the maxillary alveolar ridge. It may be separated from "granular cell tumor" by location, patient age, absence of cytoplasmic hyaline globules, solid growth pattern, pericytic proliferation, attenuated overlying epithelium, and negativity for S-100 protein. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hanfling D.,INOVA Fairfax Hospital
Southern medical journal | Year: 2013

Catastrophic disaster planning and response have been impeded by the inability to better coordinate the many components of the emergency response system. Healthcare providers in particular have remained on the periphery of such planning because of a variety of real or perceived barriers. Although hospitals and healthcare systems have worked successfully to develop surge capacity and capability, less successful have been the attempts to inculcate such planning in the private practice medical community. Implementation of a systems approach to catastrophic disaster planning that incorporates healthcare provider participation and engagement as one of the first steps toward such efforts will be of significant importance in ensuring that a comprehensive and successful emergency response will ensue. Source

Chadwick J.R.,INOVA Fairfax Hospital
Journal of trauma nursing : the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses | Year: 2010

One of the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome can occur as a result from multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and sepsis. In the trauma population, ARDS accounts for an increase in mortality as well as morbidity and disability. Nurses have an essential role in the care of the trauma patients with ARDS or acute lung injury patients. Respiratory treatments such as airway pressure release ventilation and chest physiotherapy are utilized often for ARDS treatment. A lesser used therapy, intermittent prone positioning has also been found to be effective in increasing the pulmonary gas exchange in trauma patients. This article will explain the nursing roles and responsibilities in the initiation, continuation, and cessation of intermittent prone positioning. Source

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