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Hourigan S.K.,Inova Childrens Hospital | Hourigan S.K.,Johns Hopkins University | Hourigan S.K.,Inova Translational Medicine Institute | Sears C.L.,Johns Hopkins University | Oliva-Hemker M.,Johns Hopkins University
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2016

Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are disproportionately susceptible to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the incidence is increasing. There has also been growing recognition of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization in pediatric IBD, which can sometimes be very difficult to distinguish from symptomatic C. difficile-associated disease in this population. In this study, we discuss the current knowledge of C. difficile infection in children with IBD, reviewing epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes that often differ from the adult IBD population, and discuss the complexities and dilemmas of diagnosing and treating CDI in pediatric IBD. © 2015 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Schwartz R.H.,Inova Childrens Hospital | Selvarangan R.,Laboratory Medicine Section | Selvarangan R.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Zissman E.N.,Altamonte Pediatric Asso.
Pediatric Emergency Care | Year: 2015

Background During respiratory syncytial virus season, many children present to pediatric offices and urgent care medical facilities with cough, tachypnea, intercostal retraction, wheezing, as well as disturbed appetite and sleep. Identification of the responsible viral pathogen is quite difficult because several pathogens can produce similar signs and symptoms. Methods Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from symptomatic sick children younger than 6 years, in 8 geographically representative primary care pediatric practices during a 4-month RSV season. Institutional review board approval and signed parental consent were obtained. The primary objective of the study was the estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of the Becton Dickinson (BD) Veritor RSV point-of-care (POC) assay as compared with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Of 523 specimens, 58.3% (n = 305) were from patients younger than 2 years. The BD Veritor RSV POC assay sensitivity and specificity are 81.6% (146/179) and 99.1% (341/344), respectively. When compared with RT-PCR, the BD Veritor RSV POC assay false positive was 0.9% (3/344, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.3%-2.5%) and the false negative was 18.4% (33/179, with a 95% confidence interval of 13.4%-24.5%). The BD Veritor RSV POC assay identified more true positive specimens (n = 146) than viral cell culture (n = 134 positive specimens). Conclusions In 8 participating primary care pediatric offices with 523 evaluable subjects, POC BD Veritor RSV tests performed better than viral cell culture results when RT-PCR was the reference standard. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Hansen C.E.,Inova Childrens Hospital
Pediatric Emergency Care | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Traumatic abrasions on human extremities as a result of direct contact with sea, lake, river, or aquarium animals or from traumatic injuries sustained in seawater may develop into solitary or linear granulomatous lesions. One of the more common microbial etiologies for such infections is Mycobacterium marinum. An astute pediatrician, family physician, or nurse practitioner should have a high index of suspicion and obtain specific cultures to support the growth of Mycobacterium species. Mycobacterium marinum infections will not respond to antibiotics typically chosen to treat simple skin and soft tissue infections. Rather, M. marinum infections are best treated by prolonged antimicrobial treatment regimens for 3 to 6 months and, in some cases, may require polypharmacologic therapy. We present the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered a traumatic abrasion on her right ankle in seawater. For 10 days, the skin infection morphed from cellulitis, papules, pustules, and eventually into sporotrichoid linear granuloma. After several failed antibiotic trials, M. marinum was eventually identified from the depth of her lesions. The patient improved after a 3-month course of clarithromycin. This case report is the first to include pictures demonstrating the clinical progression and resolution of M. marinum infection. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hourigan S.K.,Inova Childrens Hospital | Hourigan S.K.,Johns Hopkins University | Hourigan S.K.,Inova Translational Medicine Institute | Oliva-Hemker M.,Johns Hopkins University
Pediatric Research | Year: 2016

There has been a growing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) over recent years, in part due to the increasing prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and expanding association of intestinal dysbiosis with a wide range of human diseases. Many adult studies have shown that FMT is an effective treatment for recurrent CDI and may possibly have applications in other illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there is a paucity of data available in children who may differ from adults for many reasons including having a dynamic developing microbiome compared to adults who have a relatively stable microbiome. Here, we review published studies looking at FMT in children, for CDI and IBD, and discuss special considerations needed when conducting FMT in children. © Copyright 2016 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

Maheshwari S.,Inova Childrens Hospital | Kassim A.,Vanderbilt University | Yeh R.F.,Pharmacokinetics Laboratory | Domm J.,Vanderbilt University | And 8 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2014

Busulfan (BU) has a narrow therapeutic window and the average concentration of BU at steady state (Css) is critical for successful engraftment in children receiving BU as part of the preparative regimen for allogeneic transplants. Sixteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from HLA-identical siblings. The preparative regimen consisted of intravenous BU 0.8-1 mg/kg/dose for 16 doses, cytoxan (CY) of 50 mg/kg daily for four doses and equine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) 30 mg/kg daily for three doses. BU levels were adjusted to provide a total exposure Css of 600-700 ng/mL. The median age at the time of transplant was 6.2 years (range 1.2-19.3). Fourteen (87%) patients required adjustment of the BU dose to achieve a median Css of 652 ng/mL (range 607-700). All patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment without significant toxicity. Median donor engraftment at the last follow-up was 100% (range 80-100). None of the patients experienced sickle cell-related complications post transplant. With a median follow-up of 3 years (range 1.3-9), the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) are both 100%. We conclude that targeting of BU Css between 600 and 700 ng/mL in this regimen can result in excellent and sustained engraftment in young patients with SCD. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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