Omar A.,Innovotech Inc. |
Nadworny P.,Innovotech Inc.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2017
Pre-clinical antimicrobial validation testing for single and combination products, and parameters that should be considered when testing the antimicrobial performance of a medical device, are discussed. Guidance is provided on key elements required for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial validation, including validation of microbial growth, microbial recovery, neutralization, and antimicrobial activity. An important consideration, both in terms of practicality and economics, is designing in vitro studies that bridge to in vivo testing: A representative in vitro model is used to generate data on many clinically relevant microorganisms, and then one microorganism is selected for use in in vivo testing. If the in vivo results correlate to the in vitro results, it can reasonably be extrapolated that the same would be true for the remaining microorganisms tested in vitro. Thus, the selection of relevant in vitro models for testing is critical for successful antimicrobial validation testing. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Ceri H.,University of Calgary |
Olson M.E.,Innovotech Inc. |
Turner R.J.,University of Calgary
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010
While antibiotic resistance has grabbed the headlines and the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, the lack of susceptibility of biofilms formed both on animate and inanimate surfaces deserve greater attention from the industry, medical practitioners and regulators. The current literature tells us that the inherent tolerance to antibiotics demonstrated by antibiotic-sensitive organisms when grown as a biofilm clearly identifies a major disconnect between our current practices in antimicrobial development, diagnostics and efficacy in patient treatment. A paradigm shift is required in the way we utilize conventional antimicrobials and in the way we screen for next-generation antibiotics with efficacy to treat biofilms associated with chronic, recurrent and device related infections. This paradigm shift must not only take place in industry but also in how drugs are brought to the marketplace for acceptance. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.
Harrison J.J.,University of Washington |
Stremick C.A.,University of Calgary |
Turner R.J.,University of Calgary |
Allan N.D.,Innovotech Incorporated |
And 2 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2010
Batch culture of biofilms on peg lids is a versatile method that can be used for microtiter determinations of biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility. In this paper, we describe a core protocol and a set of parameters (surface composition, the rate of rocking or orbital motion, temperature, cultivation time, inoculum size, atmospheric gases and nutritional medium) that can be adjusted to grow single-or multispecies biofilms on peg surfaces. Mature biofilms formed on peg lids can then be fitted into microtiter plates containing test agents. After a suitable exposure time, biofilm cells are disrupted into a recovery medium using sonication. Microbicidal endpoints can be determined qualitatively using optical density measurements or quantitatively using viable cell counting. Once equipment is calibrated and growth conditions are at an optimum, the procedure requires 5 h of work over 4-6 d. This efficient method allows antimicrobial agents and exposure conditions to be tested against biofilms on a high-throughput scale. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Alemka A.,University of Alberta |
Alemka A.,Innovotech Inc. |
Nothaft H.,University of Alberta |
Zheng J.,University of Alberta |
Szymanski C.M.,University of Alberta
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013
Campylobacter jejuni is the etiologic agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In contrast, despite heavy colonization, C. jejuni maintains a commensal mode of existence in chickens. The consumption of contaminated chicken products is thought to be the principal mode of C. jejuni transmission to the human population. C. jejuni harbors a system for N-linked protein glycosylation that has been well characterized and modifies more than 60 periplasmic and membrane-bound proteins. However, the precise role of this modification in the biology of C. jejuni remains unexplored. We hypothesized that the N-glycans protect C. jejuni surface proteins from the action of gut proteases. The C. jejuni pglB mutant, deficient in the expression of the oligosaccharyltransferase, exhibited reduced growth in medium supplemented with chicken cecal contents (CCC) compared with that of wild-type (WT) cells. Inactivation of the cecal proteases by heat treatment or with protease inhibitors completely restored bacterial viability and partially rescued bacterial growth. Physiological concentrations of trypsin, but not chymotrypsin, also reduced C. jejuni pglB mutant CFU. Live or dead staining indicated that CCC preferentially influenced C. jejuni growth as opposed to bacterial viability. We identified multiple chicken cecal proteases by mass fingerprinting. The use of protease inhibitors that target specific classes indicated that both metalloproteases and serine proteases were involved in the attenuated growth of the oligosaccharyltransferase mutant. In conclusion, protein N-linked glycosylation of surface proteins may enhance C. jejuni fitness by protecting bacterial proteins from cleavage due to gut proteases. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Gray M.,University of Virginia |
Omar A.,Innovotech Inc. |
Buziak B.,Innovotech Inc.
Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing | Year: 2014
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare contamination of the immediate environment with Clostridium difficile spores and vegetative cells from 2 stool management systems over a period of 30 days in a controlled laboratory setting. DESIGN: In vitro , comparison trial. METHODS: Two stool management systems were compared over a 30-day period in a controlled laboratory setting. Sixteen systems were filled with sterile loose canine stool inoculated with 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter of C difficile ; specially prepared culture media were used to detect C difficile contamination on various surfaces of the device and in the immediate environment. Containment bags were changed daily and devices were refilled with inoculated stool to more closely imitate use in the clinical setting. A dichotomous outcome variable (growth vs no growth) was used to analyze contamination on a daily basis via the generalized estimating equation; devices were also compared on days 3, 10, 20, and 30 by measuring CFUs per device surface. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze growth over time. When observations showed no growth, the Cochran- Mantel Haenszel test was used to compare study devices. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that 20.8% of anterior surfaces of the collection bags for device 1 were contaminated versus 83.9% of collection bags for device 2 ( P < .001). Comparison of the tubing/hub interface resulted in similar findings; 20.8% of device 1 group were contaminated versus 86.3% of device 2 group ( P < .001). Analysis of an absorbent pad placed under the device during daily changes found that 0.5% of device 1 were contaminated versus 38.1% of pads placed under device 2 ( P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this in vitro study show that stool management systems can limit or prevent environmental contamination of C difficile . Results also reveal significant differences in the 2 systems tested; we hypothesize that these differences are attributable to the interface between the tubing and collection bag, the point at which these systems are most often disconnected as collection bags become filled with fecal material. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the clinical relevance of the data presented in this in vitro study. Copyright © 2014 by the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society™.
Parker A.E.,Montana State University |
Walker D.K.,Montana State University |
Goeres D.M.,Montana State University |
Allan N.,Innovotech Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2014
The MBEC™ Physiology & Genetics Assay recently became the first approved ASTM standardized biofilm disinfectant efficacy test method. This report summarizes the results of the standardization process using Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Initial ruggedness testing of the MBEC method suggests that the assay is rugged (i.e., insensitive) to small changes to the protocol with respect to 4 factors: incubation time of the bacteria (when varied from 16 to 18h), treatment temperature (20-24°C), sonication duration (25-35min), and sonication power (130-480W). In order to assess the repeatability of MBEC results across multiple tests in the same laboratory and the reproducibility across multiple labs, an 8-lab study was conducted in which 8 concentrations of each of 3 disinfectants (a non-chlorine oxidizer, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound) were applied to biofilms using the MBEC method. The repeatability and reproducibility of the untreated control biofilms were acceptable, as indicated by small repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations (SD) (0.33 and 0.67 log10(CFU/mm2), respectively). The repeatability SDs of the biofilm log reductions after application of the 24 concentration and disinfectant combinations ranged from 0.22 to 1.61, and the reproducibility SDs ranged from 0.27 to 1.70. In addition, for each of the 3 disinfectant types considered, the assay was statistically significantly responsive to the increasing treatment concentrations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Innovotech Inc. | Date: 2012-08-22
The present application discloses a method of making a surface antimicrobial by coating or forming a surface with a silver (I) periodate as well as articles of manufacture comprising a silver (I) periodate. The present application also discloses a method of preventing or reducing microbial contamination on a substrate by coating the substrate with at least one silver (I) periodate. The substrate can be a wound dressing, a medical instrument, a medical device, a metallic article, a plant or a seed.
Innovotech Inc. | Date: 2013-07-19
The present invention is silver (I) periodate compounds and their use in preventing or reducing microbial contamination. The invention includes gels, coatings, and articles of manufacture having a surface contacted or coated with a gel comprising an antimicrobial silver (I) compound. Methods of treatment are also disclosed.
Innovotech Llc | Date: 2010-09-30
This invention describes the use of resveratrol and curcumin, representatives of naturally occurring polyphenols, in their native form, after hydrogenation, and as their respective allyl derivatives, individually, in combination with themselves and other commercial monomers, to make representative varieties of polymers, e.g., polycarbonates (PC), polyurethanes (PU), co-polymers and biodegradable polymers.
Innovotech Inc. | Date: 2016-01-21
The present invention is silver (I) periodate compounds and their use in preventing or reducing microbial contamination. The invention includes coatings and articles of manufacture having a surface containing an anti-microbial silver (I) compound. Methods of treatment are also disclosed.