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Zaccheria F.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Ravasio N.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Chan-Thaw C.E.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Scotti N.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Bondioli P.,INNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
Topics in Catalysis | Year: 2012

An efficient copper catalyst for the one-pot one-step hydrogenation + esterification of unsaturated free fatty acids is described. The high selectivity in hydrogenation promoted by copper, combined with the high activity in esterification observed with solid mixed oxides allows one to directly obtain stabilized methyl esters. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Pecchia P.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Galasso I.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Mapelli S.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Bondioli P.,INNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz in the last few years is garnering a lot of attention as a biofuel and as raw material for the chemical industry due to its high oil productivity. However the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids of camelina oil (over 50%), which is rich in linolenic acid (37-40%) limits its commercial value and large-scale production. To improve the oil quality and its oxidative stability the methyl esters have been selectively hydrogenated using a non-toxic and non-pyrophoric heterogeneous copper catalyst (Cu/SiO2 or Cu/Al2O3). Our results showed that both catalysts are able to reduce the linolenic acid content below 1% while selectively increasing the monounsaturated one. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Taddei P.,University of Bologna | Chiono V.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Anghileri A.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Vozzi G.,University of Pisa | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecular Bioscience | Year: 2013

Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) and mushroom tyrosinase (MT) are used to crosslink B. mori silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/G) films. Crosslinked and uncrosslinked SF/G films show no phase separation. The thermal behavior and the conformational structure of SF/G films are strongly affected by blending and enzymatic treatment. Formation of high thermally stable crosslinked macromolecular species is observed, suggesting the occurrence of strong intermolecular interactions between the two polymers as confirmed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Preliminary in vitro tests show that MT-crosslinked blends with G amounts ≥40% and mTG-crosslinked SF/G 60/40 films support C2C12 cardiomyocyte adhesion and proliferation. In this study, microbial transglutaminase (mTG) and mushroom tyrosinase (MT) are used as crosslinking agents for pure and blend B. mori silk fibroin (SF)/gelatin (G) films. In the light of their morphological, mechanical, physical, structural, and biological properties, SF/G blends appear promising candidate substrates in the field of soft tissue engineering., © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Ghezzi C.E.,McGill University | Marelli B.,McGill University | Donelli I.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Alessandrino A.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

Airway tracts serve as a conduit of transport in the respiratory system. Architecturally, these are composed of cartilage rings that offer flexibility and prevent collapse during normal breathing. To this end, the successful regeneration of an airway tract requires the presence of differentiated chondrocytes and airway smooth muscle cells. This study investigated the role of physiological dynamic mechanical stimulation, invitro, on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), three-dimensionally seeded within a tubular dense collagen matrix construct-reinforced with rings of electrospun silk fibroin mat (TDC-SFC). In particular, the role of either shear stress supplied by laminar fluid flow or cyclic shear stress in combination with circumferential strain, provided by pulsatile flow, on the chondrogenic differentiation, and contractile lineage of MSCs, and their effects on TDC-SFC morphology and mechanical properties were analysed. Chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs was observed in the presence of chondrogenic supplements under both static and laminar flow cultures. In contrast, physiological pulsatile flow resulted in preferential cellular orientation within TDC-SFC, as dictated by dynamic circumferential strain, and induced MSC contractile phenotype expression. In addition, pulsatile flow decreased MSC-mediated collagen matrix remodelling and increased construct circumferential strength. Therefore, TDC-SFC demonstrated the central role of a matrix in the delivery of mechanical stimuli over chemical factors, by providing an invitro niche to control MSC differentiation, alignment and its capacity to remodel the matrix. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali Per Lindustria and McGill University | Date: 2012-02-28

A method for making a biomaterial comprising providing at least one polypeptide fraction chymotryptically isolated and extracted from fibroin, and adding the at least one extracted polypeptide fraction to a hydrogel precursor before gelling, wherein the at least one isolated and extracted polypeptide fraction is selected from a soluble fraction Cs, and a precipitated fraction Cp. A biomaterial comprising at least one of the isolated and extracted polypeptide fractions incorporated in a hydrogel or a hydrogel precursor. Use of the biomaterial for constructing, regenerating, repairing, replacing or augmenting soft or hard tissue; as an in vitro or in vivo construct; as a coating material; or as a cell, molecule or particle delivery medium. Use of the isolated and extracted polypeptide fraction Cs for promoting osteoinduction, osteoconduction or osteogenesis. Use of the isolated and extracted polypeptide fraction Cp for enhancing a mechanical compressive modulus of a material into which it is incorporated.


PubMed | McGill University and Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
Type: | Journal: Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine | Year: 2015

Type I collagen is a major structural and functional protein in connective tissues. However, collagen gels exhibit unstable geometrical properties, arising from extensive cell-mediated contraction. In an effort to stabilize collagen-based hydrogels, plastic compression was used to hybridize dense collagen (DC) with electrospun silk fibroin (SF) mats, generating multilayered DC-SF-DC constructs. Seeded mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated DC-SF-DC contraction, as well as growth and differentiation under chondrogenic and osteogenic supplements, were compared to those seeded in DC and on SF alone. The incorporation of SF within DC prevented extensive cell-mediated collagen gel contraction. The effect of the multilayered hybrid on MSC remodelling capacity was also evident at the transcription level, where the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitor (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP13 and Timp1) by MSCs within DC-SF-DC were comparable to those on SF and significantly downregulated in comparison to DC, except for Timp1. Chondrogenic supplements stimulated extracellular matrix production within the construct, stabilizing its multilayered structure and promoting MSC chondrogenic differentiation, as indicated by the upregulation of the genes Col2a1 and Agg and the production of collagen type II. In osteogenic medium there was an upregulation in ALP and OP along with the presence of an apatitic phase, indicating MSC osteoblastic differentiation and matrix mineralization. In sum, these results have implications on the modulation of three-dimensional collagen-based gel structural stability and on the stimulation and maintenance of the MSC committed phenotype inherent to the in vitro formation of chondral tissue and bone, as well as on potential multilayered complex tissues. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Taddei P.,University of Bologna | Tsukada M.,Shinshu University | Freddi G.,INNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Wool, Bombyx mori and Antheraea pernyi (Tussah) silk fibres were treated with chlorosulfonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies as well as mechanical measurements. The reactivity towards sulfation was found to decrease along the series: wool > Bombyx mori silk fibroin > Tussah silk fibroin, in agreement with weight gain which decreased along the same series. Accordingly, Tussah silk maintained its intrinsic tensile properties essentially unchanged upon the treatment, while for Bombyx mori silk fibroin, the tensile performance decreased sharply especially at longer reaction times. Sulfated wool was characterized by an increased fibre extensibility. New IR and Raman bands attributable to various vibrations of sulfated groups were detected in sulfated wool and to a lower extent in Bombyx mori silk fibroin fibres; all the fibres underwent conformational rearrangements upon sulfation, independent of the sulfation yield. Wool fibres treated with chlorosulfonic acid in pyridine bound considerable amounts of sulfate mainly through the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine. Also, tryptophan and basic amino acids were found to participate to the reaction. B. mori silk fibroin fibres appeared to bind a minor amount of sulfate groups mainly trough the hydroxyl groups of Ser. Weight gain, spectroscopic and mechanical data are discussed in relation to the difference in fibre morphology, structure and crystallinity, as well as to the amount and accessibility of potentially reactive amino acids. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Fusari P.,INNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Rovellini P.,INNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to propose a new analytical method for quantification of gossypol in the cottonseed product (glands, raw and refined cottonseed oil and cottonseed feed). This method developed utilizes a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry technique with an ion trap-MS detector. For the positive ionization of this compound an APCI interface was utilized, based on SIM and SRM detection. The method was submitted to a validation procedure evaluating the repeatability and precision data in a natural sample and in a spiked sample. The results obtained for a gossypol natural content of 3.0 mg/kg showed a repeatability value of 1.8 mg/kg with RSDr (%) of 18.6%, while the results obtained for a spiked sample at a level of 2.0 mg/kg of gossypol are: recovery of 88.7% with mean value of 1.8 mg/kg, repeatability value of 0.6 mg/kg with RSD (%) of 9.0%. The technique results to be selective, accurate and specific for the suitable purpose and in agree with the limits present in actual Legislation [1, 2, 3].


Colleoni C.,University of Bergamo | Massafra M.R.,INNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Rosace G.,University of Bergamo
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2012

TiO 2 thin film coatings were realized on cotton fabrics by sol-gel technique using titanium iso-propoxide. The effect of different starting acidic solutions (nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids) and the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) onto two different (0.25M and 0.025M) concentrations of TiO 2 have been widely investigated. The applications of the sol were performed by pad-dry-curing method at 120°C for 5min for curing condition. The microstructural, morphological and optical properties and the photocatalytic activity of the films were investigated. In particular, XRD analysis showed a thin film deposition without any crystalline structure, which was also confirmed by Tauc plot analysis with a band gap from 3.3 to 3.5eV. The photocatalytic activity assessment, evaluated by degradation of Procion red PX4B dyestuff, was carried out by visible and UV (365nm) sources. Under ultraviolet exposure condition the rate of degradation of pure TiO 2 films shows an interesting linear correlation with pKa of the acids used. Moreover, the PEG addition into mineral sol-gel solution dramatically increases the rate of dye degradation under exposure. Nevertheless, no significant changes in the mechanical properties were observed after 100h of UV and visible exposures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Baglio D.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Folegatti L.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The European Regulation concerning animal by-products (ABPs) established rules on safe use, transportation and disposal of these materials. According to the health risks, the products were sorted in three categories, and the materials belonging to category 1 and 2 (high and intermediate health risk) needed to be permanently marked in order to allow full traceability and avoid their entering in the feed and food chain. The selected marker was glyceroltriheptanoate (GTH) with a minimum permissible level of 250mg/kg fat fraction. This study presents the implementation and validation of an analytical method for the determination of GTH in processed ABPs using GC-FID. Two injection systems (split-splitless and programmable temperature vaporization injector) and chromatographic columns were evaluated in order to select the best instrumental conditions. The method was in-house validated by assessing linearity, precision, trueness, and limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). The linearity range was tested from 90 to 2800mg GTH/kg, the relative SD for repeatability and intermediate precision were, respectively, 1.8 and 2.9%. The mean recovery rate was 99% and the LOD and LOQ were 6.8 and 22.8mg/kg. In addition, the performance characteristics were compared with those of the reference method developed by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) with good agreement. A collection of real samples, obtained from different rendering plants in Italy, were subjected to analysis for the determination of GTH for routine quality controls. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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