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Zaccheria F.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Ravasio N.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Chan-Thaw C.E.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Scotti N.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Bondioli P.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
Topics in Catalysis | Year: 2012

An efficient copper catalyst for the one-pot one-step hydrogenation + esterification of unsaturated free fatty acids is described. The high selectivity in hydrogenation promoted by copper, combined with the high activity in esterification observed with solid mixed oxides allows one to directly obtain stabilized methyl esters. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Taddei P.,University of Bologna | Tsukada M.,Shinshu University | Freddi G.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Wool, Bombyx mori and Antheraea pernyi (Tussah) silk fibres were treated with chlorosulfonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies as well as mechanical measurements. The reactivity towards sulfation was found to decrease along the series: wool > Bombyx mori silk fibroin > Tussah silk fibroin, in agreement with weight gain which decreased along the same series. Accordingly, Tussah silk maintained its intrinsic tensile properties essentially unchanged upon the treatment, while for Bombyx mori silk fibroin, the tensile performance decreased sharply especially at longer reaction times. Sulfated wool was characterized by an increased fibre extensibility. New IR and Raman bands attributable to various vibrations of sulfated groups were detected in sulfated wool and to a lower extent in Bombyx mori silk fibroin fibres; all the fibres underwent conformational rearrangements upon sulfation, independent of the sulfation yield. Wool fibres treated with chlorosulfonic acid in pyridine bound considerable amounts of sulfate mainly through the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine. Also, tryptophan and basic amino acids were found to participate to the reaction. B. mori silk fibroin fibres appeared to bind a minor amount of sulfate groups mainly trough the hydroxyl groups of Ser. Weight gain, spectroscopic and mechanical data are discussed in relation to the difference in fibre morphology, structure and crystallinity, as well as to the amount and accessibility of potentially reactive amino acids. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Colleoni C.,University of Bergamo | Massafra M.R.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Rosace G.,University of Bergamo
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2012

TiO 2 thin film coatings were realized on cotton fabrics by sol-gel technique using titanium iso-propoxide. The effect of different starting acidic solutions (nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids) and the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) onto two different (0.25M and 0.025M) concentrations of TiO 2 have been widely investigated. The applications of the sol were performed by pad-dry-curing method at 120°C for 5min for curing condition. The microstructural, morphological and optical properties and the photocatalytic activity of the films were investigated. In particular, XRD analysis showed a thin film deposition without any crystalline structure, which was also confirmed by Tauc plot analysis with a band gap from 3.3 to 3.5eV. The photocatalytic activity assessment, evaluated by degradation of Procion red PX4B dyestuff, was carried out by visible and UV (365nm) sources. Under ultraviolet exposure condition the rate of degradation of pure TiO 2 films shows an interesting linear correlation with pKa of the acids used. Moreover, the PEG addition into mineral sol-gel solution dramatically increases the rate of dye degradation under exposure. Nevertheless, no significant changes in the mechanical properties were observed after 100h of UV and visible exposures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Pecchia P.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Galasso I.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Mapelli S.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Bondioli P.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz in the last few years is garnering a lot of attention as a biofuel and as raw material for the chemical industry due to its high oil productivity. However the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids of camelina oil (over 50%), which is rich in linolenic acid (37-40%) limits its commercial value and large-scale production. To improve the oil quality and its oxidative stability the methyl esters have been selectively hydrogenated using a non-toxic and non-pyrophoric heterogeneous copper catalyst (Cu/SiO2 or Cu/Al2O3). Our results showed that both catalysts are able to reduce the linolenic acid content below 1% while selectively increasing the monounsaturated one. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Baglio D.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria | Folegatti L.,Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per lIndustria
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The European Regulation concerning animal by-products (ABPs) established rules on safe use, transportation and disposal of these materials. According to the health risks, the products were sorted in three categories, and the materials belonging to category 1 and 2 (high and intermediate health risk) needed to be permanently marked in order to allow full traceability and avoid their entering in the feed and food chain. The selected marker was glyceroltriheptanoate (GTH) with a minimum permissible level of 250mg/kg fat fraction. This study presents the implementation and validation of an analytical method for the determination of GTH in processed ABPs using GC-FID. Two injection systems (split-splitless and programmable temperature vaporization injector) and chromatographic columns were evaluated in order to select the best instrumental conditions. The method was in-house validated by assessing linearity, precision, trueness, and limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). The linearity range was tested from 90 to 2800mg GTH/kg, the relative SD for repeatability and intermediate precision were, respectively, 1.8 and 2.9%. The mean recovery rate was 99% and the LOD and LOQ were 6.8 and 22.8mg/kg. In addition, the performance characteristics were compared with those of the reference method developed by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) with good agreement. A collection of real samples, obtained from different rendering plants in Italy, were subjected to analysis for the determination of GTH for routine quality controls. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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