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Xu Q.,Peking University | Powell J.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Townsend T.,University of Florida
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

The emission of H2S from landfills in the United States is an emergent problem because measured concentrations within the waste mass and in ambient air have been observed at potentially unsafe levels for on-site workers and at levels that can cause a nuisance and potentially deleterious health impacts to surrounding communities. Though recent research has provided data on H2S concentrations that may be observed at landfills, facility operators and landfill engineers have limited predictive tools to anticipate and plan for potentially harmful H2S emissions. A one-dimensional gas migration model was developed to assist engineers and practitioners better evaluate and predict potential emission levels of H2S based on four factors: concentration of H2S below the landfill surface (C0), advection velocity (v), H2S effective diffusion coefficient (D), and H2S adsorption coefficient of landfill cover soil (μ). Model simulations indicated that H2S migration into the atmosphere can be mitigated by reducing H2S diffusion and advection or using alternative cover soils with a high H2S adsorption coefficient. Laboratory column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the four parameters on H2S migration in cover soils and to calculate the adsorption coefficient of different cover materials. The model was validated by comparing results with laboratory column experiments. Based on the results, the laboratory column provides an effective way to estimate the H2S adsorption coefficient, which can then be incorporated into the developed model to predict the depth of cover soil required to reduce emitted H2S concentrations below a desired level. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC, University of Florida, HDR, Cdm Smith and Peking University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA | Year: 2016

Waste hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy represent two important parameters controlling fluid movement in landfills, and thus are the key inputs in design methods where predictions of moisture movement are necessary. Although municipal waste hydraulic conductivity has been estimated in multiple laboratory and field studies, measurements of anisotropy, particularly at full scale, are rare, even though landfilled municipal waste is generally understood to be anisotropic. Measurements from a buried liquids injection well surrounded by pressure transducers at a full-scale landfill in Florida were collected and examined to provide an estimate of in-situ waste anisotropy. Liquids injection was performed at a constant pressure and the resulting pore pressures in the surrounding waste were monitored. Numerical fluid flow modeling was employed to simulate the pore pressures expected to occur under the conditions operated. Nine different simulations were performed at three different lateral hydraulic conductivity values and three different anisotropy values. Measured flowrate and pore pressures collected from conditions of approximate steady state were compared with the simulation results to assess the range of anisotropies. The results support that compacted municipal waste in landfills is anisotropic, provide anisotropy estimates greater than previous measurements, and suggest that anisotropy decreases with landfill depth.


Wang Y.,University of Florida | Pleasant S.,University of Florida | Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Powell J.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Townsend T.,University of Florida
Waste Management | Year: 2016

High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) reductively dissolved from soil minerals have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells near many municipal solid waste landfills. Two in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), comprised of limestone and crushed concrete, were installed downgradient of a closed, unlined landfill in Florida, USA, to remediate groundwater containing high concentrations of these metals. Influent groundwater to the PRBs contained mean Fe and Mn concentrations of approximately 30 mg/L and 1.62 mg/L, respectively. PRBs were constructed in the shallow aquifer (maximum depth 4.6 m below land surface) and groundwater was sampled from a network of nearby monitoring wells to evaluate barrier performance in removing these metals. PRBs significantly (p < 0.05) removed dissolved Fe and Mn from influent groundwater; Fe was removed from influent water at average rates of 91% and 95% (by mass) for the limestone and crushed concrete PRBs, respectively, during the first year of the study. The performance of the PRBs declined after 3 years of operation, with Fe removal efficiency decreasing to 64% and 61% for limestone and concrete PRBs, respectively. A comparison of water quality in shallow and deep monitoring wells showed a more dramatic performance reduction in the deeper section of the concrete PRB, which was attributed to an influx of sediment into the barrier and settling of particulates from the upper portions of the PRBs. Although removal of Fe and Mn from redox impacts was achieved with the PRBs, the short time frame of effectiveness relative to the duration of a full-scale remediation effort may limit the applicability of these systems at some landfills because of the construction costs required. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Townsend T.G.,University of Florida | Tolaymat T.M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Waste Management | Year: 2010

The rate at which liquids can be added to a vertical well, the lateral zone of impact of the well, and the liquids volume needed to wet the waste within the zone of impact of the well are the key inputs needed to design a vertical well system. This paper presents design charts that can be used to estimate these inputs as a function of municipal solid waste properties (porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and anisotropy ratio), well dimensions (radius and screen length), and injection pressure. SEEP/W modeling was conducted to estimate the key design inputs for a range of conditions practically encountered for a vertical well installed in landfilled waste. The flow rate, lateral zone of impact of a well, liquids volume added, and injection pressure were normalized with the waste properties and well dimensions to formulate dimensionless variables. A series of design charts were created to present dimensionless steady-state flow rate, lateral zone of impact, and the dimensionless liquid volume needed to reach a steady-state condition, as a function of dimensionless input variables. By using dimensionless variables formulated for this work, these charts permit the user to estimate the steady-state design variables described above for a wide range of configurations and conditions beyond those simulated without the need for further modeling. The results of the study suggest that the lateral extent of the well can be estimated using Darcy's equation and assuming saturated unit-gradient vertical flow regime below the well bottom. An example problem is presented to illustrate the use of the design charts. The scenario described in the example problem was also modeled with SEEP/W, and the results were compared with those obtained from the design charts to demonstrate the validity of design charts for scenarios other than those used for the development of the design charts. The methodology presented in this paper should be thought of as a means to provide a set of bounds that an engineer can use along with their judgment in the design of a system for a specific site. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Townsend T.G.,University of Florida | Tolaymat T.M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Waste Management | Year: 2010

The key parameters for designing a horizontal source (horizontal trenches, infiltration ponds, infiltration galleries or blankets) for steady state are the rate liquids can be added to the source, the lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact of the source, and the liquids volume needed to wet the waste within the zone of impact at steady state. This paper presents charts that a designer can use to estimate these key parameters as functions of source dimensions, injection pressure, and municipal solid waste properties (porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and anisotropy) for designing a new or analyzing an existing horizontal source system for liquids addition to landfilled waste. SEEP/W was used to model liquids flow from a horizontal source in a range of conditions practically encountered for such systems. The governing equation (Richard's equation) and the boundary conditions were analyzed to formulate dimensionless variables by normalizing the design parameters (flow rate, injection pressure, the lateral zone of impact, injection pressure, and the added liquids volume) with the waste properties and source dimensions. The simulation results were transformed to the respective dimensionless forms and presented in design charts to estimate the key design parameters as functions of the source dimensions, waste properties, and injection pressure. The presentation of the modeling results in the dimensionless form facilitates their use beyond the conditions modeled. A solved example is presented to demonstrate the use of the design charts. The approach presented in the paper should be considered as approximate and designers should use their judgement and experience when using these charts for designing a horizontal liquids addition system for a specific site. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Powell J.T.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Smith J.L.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Townsend T.G.,University of Florida | Tolaymat T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Recent research and policy directives have emerged with a focus on sustainable management of waste materials, and the mining of old landfills represents an opportunity to meet sustainability goals by reducing the release of liquid- and gas-phase contaminants into the environment, recovering land for more productive use, and recovering energy from the landfilled materials. The emissions associated with the landfill mining process (waste excavation, screening, and on-site transportation) were inventoried on the basis of diesel fuel consumption data from two full-scale mining projects (1.3-1.5 L/in-place m3 of landfill space mined) and unit emissions (mass per liter of diesel consumption) from heavy equipment typically deployed for mining landfills. An analytical framework was developed and used in an assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of a few end-use management options for materials deposited and mined from an unlined landfill. The results showed that substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions can be realized in both the waste relocation and materials and energy recovery scenarios compared to a "do nothing" case. The recovery of metal components from landfilled waste was found to have the greatest benefit across nearly all impact categories evaluated, while emissions associated with heavy equipment to mine the waste itself were found to be negligible compared to the benefits that mining provided. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Kadambala R.,University of Florida | Townsend T.G.,University of Florida | Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Singh K.,University of Florida
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth. © 2011 by the authors.


Jain P.,Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC | Townsend T.G.,University of Florida | Tolaymat T.M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Waste Management | Year: 2014

This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC and University of Florida
Type: | Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) reductively dissolved from soil minerals have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells near many municipal solid waste landfills. Two in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), comprised of limestone and crushed concrete, were installed downgradient of a closed, unlined landfill in Florida, USA, to remediate groundwater containing high concentrations of these metals. Influent groundwater to the PRBs contained mean Fe and Mn concentrations of approximately 30mg/L and 1.62mg/L, respectively. PRBs were constructed in the shallow aquifer (maximum depth 4.6m below land surface) and groundwater was sampled from a network of nearby monitoring wells to evaluate barrier performance in removing these metals. PRBs significantly (p<0.05) removed dissolved Fe and Mn from influent groundwater; Fe was removed from influent water at average rates of 91% and 95% (by mass) for the limestone and crushed concrete PRBs, respectively, during the first year of the study. The performance of the PRBs declined after 3years of operation, with Fe removal efficiency decreasing to 64% and 61% for limestone and concrete PRBs, respectively. A comparison of water quality in shallow and deep monitoring wells showed a more dramatic performance reduction in the deeper section of the concrete PRB, which was attributed to an influx of sediment into the barrier and settling of particulates from the upper portions of the PRBs. Although removal of Fe and Mn from redox impacts was achieved with the PRBs, the short time frame of effectiveness relative to the duration of a full-scale remediation effort may limit the applicability of these systems at some landfills because of the construction costs required.


PubMed | Innovative Waste Consulting Services LLC, University of Florida, HDR and SCS Engineers
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA | Year: 2016

Vertical liquids addition systems have been used at municipal landfills as a leachate management method and to enhance biostabilization of waste. Drawbacks of these systems include a limitation on pressurized injection and the occurrence of seepage. A novel vertical well system that employed buried wells constructed below a lift of compacted waste was operated for 153 days at a landfill in Florida, USA. The system included 54 wells installed in six clusters of nine wells connected with a horizontally-oriented manifold system. A cumulative volume of 8430 m

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