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Corvi R.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Aardema M.J.,Marilyn Aardema Consulting LLC | Aardema M.J.,Procter and Gamble | Gribaldo L.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 7 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

The potential for a compound to induce carcinogenicity is a key consideration when ascertaining hazard and risk assessment of chemicals. Among the in vitro alternatives that have been developed for predicting carcinogenicity, in vitro cell transformation assays (CTAs) have been shown to involve a multistage process that closely models important stages of in vivo carcinogenesis and have the potential to detect both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. These assays have been in use for decades and a substantial amount of data demonstrating their performance is available in the literature. However, for the standardised use of these assays for regulatory purposes, a formal evaluation of the assays, in particular focusing on development of standardised transferable protocols and further information on assay reproducibility, was considered important to serve as a basis for the drafting of generally accepted OECD test guidelines. To address this issue, a prevalidation study of the CTAs using the BALB/c 3T3 cell line, SHE cells at pH 6.7, and SHE cells at pH 7.0 was coordinated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and focused on issues of standardisation of protocols, test method transferability and within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. The study resulted in the availability of standardised protocols that had undergone prevalidation [1,2]. The results of the ECVAM study demonstrated that for the BALB/c 3T3 method, some modifications to the protocol were needed to obtain reproducible results between laboratories, while the SHE pH 6.7 and the SHE pH 7.0 protocols are transferable between laboratories, and results are reproducible within- and between-laboratories. It is recommended that the BALB/c 3T3 and SHE protocols as instituted in this prevalidation study should be used in future applications of these respective transformation assays. To support their harmonised use and regulatory application, the development of an OECD test guideline for the SHE CTAs, based on the protocol published in this issue, is recommended. The development of an OECD test guideline for the BALB/c 3T3 CTA should likewise be further pursued upon the availability of additional supportive data and improvement of the statistical analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Schechtman L.M.,Innovative Toxicology Consulting LLC
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

In vitro cell transformation is a process characterized by a series of progressive distinctive events that often emulate manifestations occurring in vivo and which are associated with neoplasia. Attendant cellular and sub-cellular alterations include, among others: cellular immortality, phenotypic changes, aneuploidy, genetic variability, cellular disarray, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in vivo. Early chemically induced neoplastic transformation studies involved the use of normal diploid (Syrian) hamster embryo (SHE) cells and monitored the formation of morphologically altered colonies. Later investigations employed primarily two established mouse cell lines, i.e. the BALB/c 3T3 A31 cell line and the C3H 10T 1/2 cell line, and monitored the induction of morphologically aberrant foci. In either case, such transformed cellular clusters (colonies and foci) could induce tumors upon inoculation in vivo. Some subsequent noteworthy advancements using these systems included pH adjustments, metabolic supplementation, amplification of expression of formerly latent transformed foci, concurrent detection of mutagenesis and transformation, and use of a Bhas 42 cell line (v-Ha- ras transfected BALB/c 3T3 cells) to detect both tumor initiators and promoters. Over time, such transformation assay systems have been found useful in academic, industry and regulatory laboratories, generally for research purposes, but also occasionally as screening tools for potential chemical carcinogens. Nevertheless, to date, use of these assays for decision-making purposes in the regulatory arena remains elusive and will require comprehensive validation to gain universal acceptance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Morita T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Uno Y.,Mitsubishi Group | Honma M.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Kojima H.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Creton S.,National Center for the Replacement | Aardema M.J.,Marilyn Aardema Consulting LLC | Carmichael P.L.,Colworth Science Park | Harvey J.S.,Glaxosmithkline | And 12 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting. © The Author 2011. Source


Vanparys P.,Altoxicon BVBA | Corvi R.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection IHCP | Aardema M.,Procter and Gamble | Aardema M.,Marilyn Aardema Consulting LLC | And 4 more authors.
Altex | Year: 2011

A prevalidation study on the cell transformation assays in SHE cells at pH 6.7, SHE cells at pH 7.0 and Balb/c 3T3 cell line was coordinated by ECVAM focussing on issues of standardisation of protocols, within-laboratory reproducibility, test method transferability and between-laboratory reproducibility. The Validation Management Team concluded that standardised protocols are now available that should be the basis for future use. The SHE pH 6.7, and the SHE pH 7.0 protocols and the assays system themselves are transferable between laboratories, and are reproducible within- and between-laboratories. For the Balb/c 3T3 method, some clarifications and modifications to the protocol were needed to obtain reproducible results. Overall, three methods have shown to be valuable to detect rodent carcinogens. Source

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