Plymouth, MN, United States
Plymouth, MN, United States

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Ybarra M.L.,Innovative Research Inc. | Korchmaros J.,Innovative Research Inc. | Kiwanuka J.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Bangsberg D.R.,Massachusetts General Hospital
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

The applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use was tested among 390 sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one's partner about safer sex. Aspects of one's first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) were strongly influential in predicting current condom use; this was especially true for discussing condoms with one's first sex partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Babizhayev M.A.,Castle Inc. | Babizhayev M.A.,Innovative Research Inc. | Deyev A.I.,Castle Inc.
American Journal of Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays an important role in mediating inflammation. In our studies, we found that iNOS-derived NO was significantly increased in the serum samples of 150 patients infected with influenza A virus in comparison with samples of 140 healthy individuals. In human lung epithelial cells, infection with influenza A virus or stimulation with poly(I:C) + interferon-gamma resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of both interleukin-32 and iNOS, with subsequent release of NO. Activated macrophages are also a source of nitric oxide (NO), which is largely produced by iNOS in response to proinflammatory cytokines. In this review article, the presented findings have many important implications for understanding the Influenza A (H1N1) viral pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. The direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. Nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2) are generated markedly in influenza A (including H1N1) virus-infected host boosts, and these molecular species are identified as the potent pathogenic agents. The mutual interaction of NO with O2 resulting in formation of peroxynitrite is operative in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza virus pneumonia. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals, generated in excessive amounts mediate the overreaction of the host's immune response against the organs or tissues in which viruses are replicating, and this may explain the mechanism of tissue injuries observed in influenza virus infection of various types. The authors revealed the protection that carnosine and its bioavailable nonhydrolized forms provide against peroxynitrite damage and other types of viral injuries in which immunologic interactions are usually involved. Carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine) shows the pharmacologic intracellular correction of NO release which might be one of the important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of influenza A virus infection (inhibition of virus replication) and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. The protective effects of orally applied nonhydrolized formulated species of carnosine include at least direct interaction with nitric oxide, inhibition of cytotoxic NO-induced proinflammatory condition, and attenuation of the effects of cytokines and chemokines that can exert profound effects on inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that natural products, such as chicken soup and chicken breast extracts rich in carnosine and its derivative anserine (beta-alanyl-1-methyl-l-histidine) could contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of influenza virus infections and cold but have a limitation due to susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptides with serum carnosinase and urine excretion after oral ingestion of a commercial chicken extract. The developed and patented by the authors formulations of nonhydrolized in digestive tract and blood natural carnosine peptide and isopeptide (gamma-glutamyl-carnosine) products have a promise in the Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection disease control and prevention. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Patankar S.V.,University of Minnesota | Patankar S.V.,Innovative Research Inc.
Journal of Heat Transfer | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the distribution of airflow and the resulting cooling in a data center. First, the cooling challenge is described and the concept of a raised-floor data center is introduced. In this arrangement, cooling air is supplied through perforated tiles. The flow rates of the cooling air must meet the cooling requirements of the computer servers placed next to the tiles. These airflow rates are governed primarily by the pressure distribution under the raised floor. Thus, the key to modifying the flow rates is to influence the flow field in the under-floor plenum. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to provide insight into various factors affecting the airflow distribution and the corresponding cooling. A number of ways of controlling the airflow distribution are explored. Then attention is turned to the above-floor space, where the focus is on preventing the hot air from entering the inlets of computer serves. Different strategies for doing this are considered. The paper includes a number of comparisons of measurements with the results of CFD simulations. © 2010 by ASME.

Botts M.,Innovative Research Inc.
GPS World | Year: 2014

The OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards specifies models and XML encodings that provide a framework within which the geometric, dynamic, and observational characteristics of all types of sensors and sensor systems can be defined. The overall system-of-system's diversity of data formats, data models, processing models and associated custom- built one-to-one communication interfaces significantly inhibits introduction of new subsystems and also new GPS-dependent systems that would support development of future classes of stakeholders. Many-to-many networks based on open standards can create interoperability as well as opportunities for the introduction of new technologies, value-added data products, and new users. GPS relies on accurate knowledge regarding the position, measured time, and state of the satellites, provided to GPS devices and processing centers in the form of satellite ephemeris data and status reports. The accuracy of the system relies on communication between the satellites themselves, the data collection systems, the data processing centers, and the GPS devices that ultimately determine their own location.

Babizhayev M.A.,Innovative Research Inc.
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2011

We review the dichotomous regulatory roles of natural imidazole-containing peptidomimetics (N-acetylcarnosine [NAC], carcinine, non-hydrolized carnosine) in maintaining skin homeostasis that determines whether keratinocytes survive or undergo apoptosis in response to various insults and in the development of skin diseases. General strategies addressing common ground techniques to improve absorption of usually active chaperone proteins or their dipeptide inducer (usually poorly absorbed) compounds include encapsulation into hydrophobic carriers, combination with penetration enhancers, active electrical transport or chemical modification to increase hydrophobicity. A growing evidence is presented that demonstrates the ability of NAC (lubricant eye drops) or carcinine to act as pharmacological chaperones, or being synergistically coupled in patented formulations with another imidazole-containing peptidomimetic (such as, Leucyl-histidylhydrazide), to decrease oxidative stress and ameliorate oxidative and excessive glycation stress-related eye disease phenotypes, suggesting that the field of chaperone therapy might hold novel treatments for age-related cataracts, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and ocular complications of diabetes (OCD). Current efforts are being directed towards exploring therapeutic approaches of pharmacological targeting and human drug delivery for chaperone molecules based on innovative patented strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

Shah N.,Long Beach Veterans Administration Healthcare System | Osea E.A.,Innovative Research Inc. | Martinez G.J.,Catalina Research Institute LLC
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Hemoglobin concentration is assessed to detect anemia and its associated morbidities. Hemoglobin is usually determined from venous or capillary blood samples run on a laboratory analyzer. However, this method requires a needle stick and results can be delayed. It also exposes caregivers to risks associated with needle sticks and blood exposure. Noninvasive hemoglobin determination would be of benefit to patients and caregivers because it would allow for quick and painless point-of-care assessment. Methods: Hemoglobin determination from a noninvasive spot check hemoglobin device (Pronto-7 with SpHb, Masimo) and an invasive point-of-care device (HemoCue) was compared with venous blood samples run on a laboratory hematology analyzer. Results: A total of 440 outpatients and healthy volunteers were included (mean age 36 years, 62% female). Compared with the hematology analyzer, the bias ± standard deviation of was -0.1 ± 1.1 g/dL for SpHb and -0.1 ± 1.6 g/dL for HemoCue. Conclusion: Noninvasive hemoglobin testing with SpHb provided similar accuracy as invasive point-of-care hemoglobin testing and may enable more efficient and effective patient care. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Laboratory Hematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Babizhayev M.A.,Innovative Research Inc. | Savel'yeva E.L.,Moscow State University | Moskvina S.N.,Institute of Physicochemical Medicine | Yegorov Y.E.,RAS Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
American Journal of Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10 radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10 per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical population groups described in this study including elderly support the hypothesis that telomere length is a predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Innovative Research Inc. | Date: 2012-08-28

Proprietary three-dimensional computer software for simulating the cooling performance of data centers.

Innovative Research Inc. | Date: 2013-03-27

anti-genetic profile testing device.

The aging eye appears to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. A great deal of research indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 95% of O2 2 produced during normal metabolism is generated by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are also the major target of ROS. Cataract formation, the opacification of the eye lens, is one of the leading causes of human blindness worldwide, accounting for 47.8% of all causes of blindness. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cell plasma membrane damage, which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS-induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage, and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. This article is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial ROS are altered in the aging eye along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondriatargeted antioxidants might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. As a result of the combination of weak metal chelating, OH- and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biologic membranes and aqueous environments and act as the antiapoptotic natural drug compounds The authors developed and patented the new ophthalmic compositions, including N-acetylcarnosine, acting as a prodrug of naturally targeted to mitochondria L-carnosine endowed with pluripotent antioxidant activities combined with mitochondria-targeted rechargeable antioxidant (either MitoVit E, Mito Q, or SkQs) as a potent medicine to treat ocular diseases. Such specificity is explained by the fact that developed compositions might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo and outside mitochondria in the cellular and tissue structures of the lens and eye compartments. Mitochondrial targeting of compounds with universal types of antioxidant activity represents a promising approach for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases of the aging eye and can be implicated in the management of cataracts. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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