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Bruhl C.A.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Schafer R.B.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Mittmann F.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Stahlschmidt P.,University of Koblenz-Landau | And 14 more authors.
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2012

This report provides a brief review of the 16th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 18th to 20th 2011 at the University Koblenz-Landau at Campus Landau. The event was organized by Carsten Brühl and Ralf B. Schäfer and many members and students of the Institute for Environmental Sciences under the main theme "EcoTOXICOlogy and Environmental CHEMISTRY: Crossing borders". Almost 300 participants enjoyed the scientific program that included 54 oral and 70 poster presentations under seven session themes. In addition, four invited keynote speakers and a plenary discussion on biodiversity with representatives from government, academia and industry provided new insights. The best oral and poster presentations of the meeting were awarded together with the annual young scientist award of SETAC GLB for the best diploma and doctoral thesis. The proceedings of the meeting (mostly in German) including the program and all abstracts is freely available as Supplemental Material. © 2012 Dakal and Cameotra; licensee Springer. Source

Sedivy C.,ETH Zurich | Piskorski R.,ETH Zurich | Piskorski R.,Innovative Environmental Services IES Ltd | Muller A.,ETH Zurich | Dorn S.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2012

Growing evidence suggests that the freely accessible pollen of some plants is chemically protected against pollen-feeding flower visitors. For example, a diet of pollen from buttercup plants (Ranunculus) recently was shown to have a deleterious effect on developing larvae of several bee species not specialized on Ranunculus. Numerous Ranunculus species contain ranunculin, the glucosyl hydrate form of the highly reactive and toxic lactone protoanemonin, that causes the toxicity of these plants. We tested whether the presence of ranunculin is responsible for the lethal effects of R. acris pollen on the larvae of two bee species that are not Ranunculus specialists. To investigate the effect on bee larval development, we added ranunculin to the pollen provisions of the Campanula specialist bee Chelostoma rapunculi and the Asteraceae specialist bee Heriades truncorum, and allowed the larvae to feed on these provisions. We quantified ranunculin in pollen of R. acris and in brood cell provisions collected by the Ranunculus specialist bee Chelostoma florisomne. We demonstrated that although ranunculin was lethal to both tested bee species in high concentrations, the concentration in the pollen of R. acris was at least fourfold lower than that tolerated by the larvae of C. rapunculi and H. truncorum in the feeding experiments. Ranunculin concentration in the brood cells of C. florisomne was on average even twentyfold lower than that in Ranunculus pollen, suggesting that a mechanism different from ranunculin intoxication accounts for the larval mortality reported for bees not specialized on Ranunculus pollen. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Klaiber J.,ETH Zurich | Najar-Rodriguez A.J.,ETH Zurich | Piskorski R.,ETH Zurich | Piskorski R.,Innovative Environmental Services IES Ltd | Dorn S.,ETH Zurich
Planta | Year: 2013

Plants growing under elevated CO2 concentration may acclimatize to this environmental change by modification of chemical, physiological, and/or morphological traits. As a consequence, not only plant functioning but also plant-insect interactions might be altered, with important consequences particularly for agricultural systems. Whereas most studies have focused on the plant acclimation effects of elevated CO2 with regard to crop growth and productivity, acclimation effects on the behavioral response of insects associated with these plants have been largely neglected. In this study, we used a model system comprised of Brussels sprout Brassica oleraceae var. gemmifera and a specialized herbivorous insect, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, to test for the effects of various periods of exposure to an elevated (2× ambient) CO2 concentration on key plant functional traits and on host plant location behavior by the insect, assessed as plant colonization rates. Elevated CO2 had no measurable effect on colonization rates or total plant volatile emissions after a 2-week exposure, but it led to 15 and 26 % reductions in plant colonization rates after 6- and 10-week exposures, respectively. This reduction in plant colonization was associated with significant decreases in leaf stomatal conductance and plant volatile emission. Terpene emission, in particular, exhibited a great reduction after the 10-week exposure to elevated CO2. Our results provide empirical evidence that plants might acclimatize to a future increase in CO2, and that these acclimation responses might affect host plant choice and colonization behavior by herbivorous insects, which might be advantageous from the plant's perspective. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Romeis J.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tanikon | Hellmich R.L.,Iowa State University | Candolfi M.P.,Innovative Environmental Services IES Ltd | Carstens K.,DuPont Pioneer | And 8 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2011

This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in risk assessments to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on non-target arthropods (NTAs). While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in this discussion, the concepts apply to other arthropod-active proteins. A risk may exist if the newly acquired trait of the GE plant has adverse effects on NTAs when they are exposed to the arthropod-active protein. Typically, the risk assessment follows a tiered approach that starts with laboratory studies under worst-case exposure conditions; such studies have a high ability to detect adverse effects on non-target species. Clear guidance on how such data are produced in laboratory studies assists the product developers and risk assessors. The studies should be reproducible and test clearly defined risk hypotheses. These properties contribute to the robustness of, and confidence in, environmental risk assessments for GE plants. Data from NTA studies, collected during the analysis phase of an environmental risk assessment, are critical to the outcome of the assessment and ultimately the decision taken by regulatory authorities on the release of a GE plant. Confidence in the results of early-tier laboratory studies is a precondition for the acceptance of data across regulatory jurisdictions and should encourage agencies to share useful information and thus avoid redundant testing. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Piskorski R.,ETH Zurich | Piskorski R.,Innovative Environmental Services IES Ltd | Ineichen S.,ETH Zurich | Dorn S.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011

Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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