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Oktay K.,New York Medical College | Oktay K.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | Oktay K.,GenArt Womens Health and Reproductive Biotechnology Center | Baltaci V.,GenArt Womens Health and Reproductive Biotechnology Center | And 7 more authors.
Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a major cause of age-induced decline in oocyte quality. In the past, donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer showed some success but was abandoned due to the concerns with heteroplasmy. Recent studies indicated presence of oogonial precursor cells (OPCs) in the human ovary, which could be an autologous source of "healthy mitochondria." We sought to investigate the clinical efficacy of OPC-derived autologous mitochondrial injection (AMI) to improve oocyte quality in women with multiple in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures. Methods: The OPCs were isolated from laparoscopically obtained ovarian cortical pieces by cell sorting using a monoclonal anti-vasa homolog (anti-DDX) antibody. They were then disrupted and mitochondria were isolated. Reconstituted mitochondria were injected into each oocyte during intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Paired comparisons were made between the first failed cycles and the post-AMI cycles. Results: Of the 15 women undergoing ovarian stimulation, 2 were canceled and 3 decided to pool oocytes for later AMI. In remaining 10 (mean age 34.7 ± 4.1), AMI significantly improved fertilization rates (49.7 ± 31.3 vs 78.3 ± 18.9; P =.03) with a trend for better embryo grades (2.3 ± 0.3 vs 3.1 ± 0.7; P =.08). Four of 10 women conceived after single frozen embryo transfer and 3 after confirmation of diploidy via array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) (clinical pregnancy/embryo transfer = 4/10). Conclusion: These data show encouraging results for AMI in comparison to previous failed IVF cycles. © The Author(s) 2015.


Oktay K.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | Oktay K.,New York Medical College | Bedoschi G.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | Bedoschi G.,New York Medical College
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology | Year: 2014

Objective: To preliminarily study the feasibility of oocyte cryopreservation in postpubertal girls aged between 13 and 15years who were at risk for premature ovarian failure due to the accelerated follicle loss associated with Turner syndrome or cancer treatments. Design: Retrospective cohort and review of literature. Setting: Academic fertility preservation unit. Participants: Three girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome, 1 girl diagnosed with germ-cell tumor. and 1 girl diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukemia. Interventions: Assessment of ovarian reserve, ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval, invitro maturation, and mature oocyte cryopreservation. Main Outcome Measure: Response to ovarian stimulation, number of mature oocytes cryopreserved and complications, if any. Results: Mean anti-müllerian hormone, baseline follical stimulating hormone, estradiol, and antral follicle counts were 1.30±0.39, 6.08±2.63, 41.39±24.68, 8.0±3.2; respectively. In Turner girls the ovarian reserve assessment indicated already diminished ovarian reserve. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation was successfully performed in all female children referred for fertility preservation. A range of 4-11 mature oocytes (mean 8.1±3.4) was cryopreserved without any complications. All girls tolerated the procedure well. Conclusions: Oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible technique in selected female children at risk for premature ovarian failure. Further studies would be beneficial to test the success of oocyte cryopreservation in young girls. © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology.


Oktay K.,New York Medical College | Oktay K.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | Turan V.,New York Medical College | Turan V.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | And 5 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2015

Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


Li F.,New York Medical College | Li F.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | Turan V.,New York Medical College | Turan V.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | And 5 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2014

STUDY QUESTION: Can Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a ceramide-induced death pathway inhibitor, prevent cyclophosphamide (Cy) or doxorubicin (Doxo) induced apoptotic follicle death in human ovarian xenografts? SUMMARY ANSWER: S1P can block human apoptotic follicle death induced by both drugs, which have differing mechanisms of cytotoxicity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: S1P has been shown to decrease the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on germinal vesicle oocytes in animal studies but no human translational data exist. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Experimental human ovarian xenografting to test the in vivo protective effect of S1P on primordial follicle survival in the chemotherapy setting. The data were validated by assessing the same protective effect in the ovaries of xenografted mice in parallel. PARTICIPANTS/ MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Xenografted mice were treated with Cy (75 mg/kg), Cy+S1P (200 μM), Doxo (10 mg/kg), Doxo+S1P or vehicle only (Control). S1P was administered via continuous infusion using a mini-osmotic pump beginning 24 h prior to and ending 72 h post-chemotherapy. Grafts were then recovered and stained with anti-caspase 3 antibody for the detection of apoptosis in primordial follicles. The percentage of apoptotic to total primordial follicles was calculated in each group. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Both Cy and Doxo resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic follicle death in human ovarian xenografts compared with controls (62.0 ± 3.9% versus 25.7 ± 7.4%, P < 0.01 and 76.7 ± 7.4% versus 25.7 ± 7.4%, P < 0.01, respectively). This chemotherapy-induced apoptotic death was reduced both in the Cy+S1P (32.7 ± 4.4%, P < 0.01) and the Doxo+S1P group (27.1 ± 7.6%, P < 0.01) compared with Cy and Doxo groups, respectively. In the Doxo+S1P and Cy+S1P groups, the percentages of apoptotic follicles were similar to those of vehicle-treated controls (P > 0.05). The findings from the ovaries of the severe combined immunodeficient mice mirrored the findings with human tissue. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The functionality of the rescued human ovarian follicles needs to be evaluated in future studies though the studies in rodents showed that rescued oocytes can result in healthy offspring. In addition, the impact of S1P on cancer cells should be further studied. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: S1P and its future analogs hold promise for preserving fertility by pharmacological means for patients undergoing chemotherapy. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research is supported by NIH's NICHD and NCI (5R01HD053112-06 and 5R21HD061259-02) and the Flemish Foundation for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, grant number FWO G0.065.11N10). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. © The Author 2013.


Reddy J.,New York Medical College | Turan V.,New York Medical College | Bedoschi G.,New York Medical College | Bedoschi G.,Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation and IVF | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2014

Purpose: To analyze the cycle outcomes and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), when oocyte maturation was triggered by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in breast cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation. Methods: One hundred twenty-nine women aged≤45 years, diagnosed with stage≤3 breast cancer, with normal ovarian reserve who desired fertility preservation were included in the retrospective cohort study. Ovarian stimulation was achieved utilizing letrozole and gonadotropins. Oocyte maturation was triggered with GnRHa or hCG. Baseline AMH levels, number of oocytes, maturation and fertilization rates, number of embryos, and the incidence of OHSS was recorded. Results: The serum AMH levels were similar between GnRHa and hCG groups (2.7±1.9 vs. 2.1±1.8; p=0.327). There was one case of mild or moderate OHSS in the GnRHa group compared to 12 in the hCG group (2.1 % vs. 14.4 %, p=0.032). The maturation and fertilization rates, and the number of cryopreserved embryos were significantly higher in the GnRHa group. Conclusions: GnRHa trigger improved cycle outcomes as evidenced by the number of mature oocytes and cryopreserved embryos, while significantly reducing the risk of OHSS in breast cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

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