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Hristov A.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Oh J.,Pennsylvania State University | Firkins J.L.,Ohio State University | Dijkstra J.,Wageningen University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

The goal of this review was to analyze published data related to mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant animals to document the most effective and sustainable strategies. Increasing forage digestibility and digestible forage intake was one of the major recommended CH4 mitigation practices. Although responses vary, CH4 emissions can be reduced when corn silage replaces grass silage in the diet. Feeding legume silages could also lower CH4 emissions compared to grass silage due to their lower fiber concentration. Dietary lipids can be effective in reducing CH4 emissions, but their applicability will depend on effects on feed intake, fiber digestibility, production, and milk composition. Inclusion of concentrate feeds in the diet of ruminants will likely decrease CH4 emission intensity (Ei; CH4 per unit animal product), particularly when inclusion is above 40% of dietary dry matter and rumen function is not impaired. Supplementation of diets containing medium to poor quality forages with small amounts of concentrate feed will typically decrease CH4 Ei. Nitrates show promise as CH4 mitigation agents, but more studies are needed to fully understand their impact on whole-farm greenhouse gas emissions, animal productivity, and animal health. Through their effect on feed efficiency and rumen stoichiometry, ionophores are likely to have a moderate CH4 mitigating effect in ruminants fed high-grain or mixed grain-forage diets. Tannins may also reduce CH4 emissions although in some situations intake and milk production may be compromised. Some direct-fed microbials, such as yeast-based products, might have a moderate CH4-mitigating effect through increasing animal productivity and feed efficiency, but the effect is likely to be inconsistent. Vaccines against rumen archaea may offer mitigation opportunities in the future although the extent of CH4 reduction is likely to be small and adaptation by ruminal microbes and persistence of the effect is unknown. Overall, improving forage quality and the overall efficiency of dietary nutrient use is an effective way of decreasing CH4 Ei. Several feed supplements have a potential to reduce CH4 emission from ruminants although their long-term effect has not been well established and some are toxic or may not be economically feasible. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Knapp J.R.,Fox Hollow Consulting LLC | Laur G.L.,Gwinn Sawyer Veterinary Clinic | Vadas P.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Weiss W.P.,Ohio State University | Tricarico J.M.,Innovation Center For Us Dairy
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7kg of CO2e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ohio State University, Innovation Center For Us Dairy, Gwinn Sawyer Veterinary Clinic and Fox Hollow Consulting LLC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2014

Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG.


Holder V.B.,University of Kentucky | Tricarico J.M.,Innovation Center For Us Dairy | Kim D.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kristensen N.B.,Knowledge Center for Agriculture | Harmon D.L.,University of Kentucky
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to compare nitrogen metabolism and urea kinetics between diets containing either rapidly degrading or slow degrading non-protein nitrogen (NPN) at varying levels of degradable intake protein (DIP). Treatments were slow release urea (Optigen®, Alltech, Inc.) fed at 1.01 and 1.14 and feed grade urea (UREA) fed at 0.89 and 1.00 of calculated DIP requirements. Eight Holstein steers (209 ±15kg) implanted with 28mg estradiol+200mg trenbolone acetate (Synovex Plus, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square. Experimental periods were 27 days, with 19 day adaptation followed by 7 day of urine and fecal collection and 1 day of blood sampling. Continuous (78h) intravenous infusion of 15N15N-urea allowed the estimation of systemic urea kinetics. Dry matter intake was not different between treatments (7.2kg/day). Increasing DIP had a tendency to increase dry matter digestibility (DMD) for both Urea and Optigen®. Urea had higher DMD than Optigen®. Increasing DIP increased urinary N output for both UREA and Optigen®, and increased N-retention at 1.14 Optigen®. Increasing DIP increased urea-N entry rate (UER) and urinary urea-N excretion (UUE) for both Optigen® and UREA. Gastrointestinal entry of urea-N, urea-N lost to feces and urea-N apparently used for anabolism were not different between treatments. Plasma urea concentration was greater in higher DIP diets and higher for Urea than Optigen® at 1.00 DIP. Therefore increasing DIP level will increase N-excretion related to higher urea production and excretion in urine but may also increase diet digestibility. Most changes in N metabolism were driven by N intake. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Lascano G.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Lascano G.J.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Heinrichs A.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Tricarico J.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Tricarico J.M.,Innovation Center For Us Dairy
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary starch and the dose at which the effects of yeast culture (YC) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) were maximized based on nutrient total-tract digestibility (AD), N utilization, and blood metabolites of precision-fed dairy heifers. A split-plot design with starch level as the whole plot and YC dose as subplot was administered in a 4-period (21 d), 4×4 Latin square. Eight Holstein heifers (432.49±6.81kg of body weight) were allocated to 2 starch treatments (28% starch, high starch, HS, or 17% starch, low starch, LS) and to a sequence of YC doses (0, 10, 30, and 50g/d). Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) AD were not different between HS and LS; however, HS decreased acid detergent fiber (ADF) and increased hemicellulose AD. Digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) increased quadratically in response to increasing YC dose. Hemicellulose, NDF, and ADF AD increased or tended to increase quadratically with increasing YC dose. No significant effects were noted on fecal or urine output between dietary starch concentrations; YC decreased wet and dry fecal output corresponding to the effect in DM and OM. Apparent N digestibility was greater in the LS group. As YC dose increased, fecal N output decreased quadratically and was lowest at 30g/d YC. A corresponding quadratic increase was observed for N retention expressed as a percentage of N digested: N output in urine tended to increase with increasing YC dose, resulting in no differences in retained N (g/d). Dietary starch concentration did not affect blood glucose, triglyceride, creatinine, or lactate concentration. However, HS increased plasma urea N concentration. Glucose concentration tended to increase quadratically with daily YC dose in both starch treatments, with the greatest response at 30g/d. For triglycerides, dietary starch concentration and YC dose interacted, decreasing quadratically in the LS group and increasing in the HS group (lowest and highest value for 10g/d respectively). We observed a significant time effect for all blood metabolites measured. We conclude that starch level did not affect DM AD, but influenced ADF and hemicellulose AD. Yeast culture had the greatest effect on DM, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose AD when added at 30g/d. Addition of YC influenced glucose and triglyceride concentrations differently according to the dietary starch concentration of the diet. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Bakshi S.,Iowa State University | Aller D.M.,Iowa State University | Laird D.A.,Iowa State University | Chintala R.,Innovation Center For Us Dairy
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2016

The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments. Twenty-two biochars produced by fast and slow pyrolysis, and gasification techniques from five different biomass feedstocks (hardwood, corn stover, soybean stover, macadamia nut shells, and switchgrass) were studied. In general, both laboratory and field aging caused similar increases in ash-free volatile matter (% w/w), cation and anion exchange capacities, specific surface area, and modifications in oxygencontaining surface functional groups of the biochars. However, ash content increased for FA (18-195%) and decreased for LA (22-74%) biochars, and pH decreased to a greater extent for LA (2.8-6.7 units) than for FA (1.6-3.8 units) biochars. The results demonstrate that the proposed laboratory aging procedure is effective for predicting the direction of changes in biochar properties on field aging. However, in the future we recommend using a less aggressive acid treatment. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. All rights reserved.


Barnes G.,Innovation Center For Us Dairy | Tomasula P.M.,Aqricultural Research Service | Nutter D.W.,University of Arkansas
Carbon Management Technology Conference 2012 | Year: 2012

While energy efficiency best practices exist that can help fluid milk plants reduce energy use, emissions and operating costs, one of the biggest challenges to implementation among processors is lack of verified information for better decision making. As a result of the work done by the Dairy Plant Smart team, seven example of best practice case students with associated economic feasibility have been developed, with four additional cases in development that will be ready to be shared by the end of 2011. These cases provide plant with technical data and example of energy efficiency upgrades that has been successful for other fluid processing plants and inculde identification of critical control points.


Sabbia J.A.,South Dakota State University | Kalscheur K.F.,South Dakota State University | Garcia A.D.,South Dakota State University | Gehman A.M.,Alltech Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to examine the effects substituting soybean meal with a yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on rumen and blood metabolites, dry matter intake, and milk production of high-producing dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (12. multiparous and 4 primiparous), 93 ± 37 DIM (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by parity and production, with 1 square consisting of 4 animals fitted with rumen cannulas. Basal diets, formulated for 16.1% crude protein and 1.56. Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, contained 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix. During each period, cows were fed 1 of 4 treatment diets corresponding to YMP (DEMP; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) concentrations of 0, 1.14, 2.28, and 3.41% DM. Soybean meal (44% CP) was replaced by YMP to attain isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on pH and on most ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, with the exception of isovalerate, which decreased linearly with the addition of YMP. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased linearly, whereas free amino acids, total amino acid nitrogen, and soluble proteins weighing more than 10. kDa showed a cubic response on rumen N fractionation. A quadratic response was observed in oligopeptides that weighed between 3 and 10. kDa and peptides under 3. kDa when expressed as percentages of total amino acids and total nitrogen. Although nonesterified fatty acid concentration in blood did not differ between treatments, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma glucose increased linearly as YMP increased. Dry matter intake showed a cubic effect, where cows fed 1.14, and 3.41% YMP had the highest intake. Milk production was not affected by YMP, whereas a trend was observed for a quadratic increase for 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid concentrations in milk increased quadratically, which elicited similar effects on milk fat concentration and yield. Total solids percentage and yield, and milk urea nitrogen also showed quadratic effects as YMP increased in the diet. No effects were observed on feed efficiency, milk protein, and lactose percentage or yield. A complementary in vitro study demonstrated a quadratic tendency for apparent and true dry matter digestibility as YMP was added to the diet. It was concluded that the substitution of soybean meal with YMP increased the percentage of total solids in milk and tended to improve energy-corrected and fat-corrected milk production in high-producing dairy cows consuming high-forage diets. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Thoma G.,University of Arkansas | Jolliet O.,University of Michigan | Wang Y.,Innovation Center For Us Dairy
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2013

Data from 536 United States of America dairy farms were used to test algorithms for milk to beef allocation. A wide range of rations was represented, from pasture-based to large confined animal operations. Variety in the animal classes sent to beef provided a very robust dataset. We report an empirical relationship for the causal allocation ratio (ARc) based on detailed analysis of farm rations, to allocate whole farm emissions between milk and beef: ARc = 1-4.39.BMR; with BMR defined as the kg beef sold per kg milk sold annually. USA dairy farm green house gas emissions allocated to milk using this approach was, on average, 91.5%, compared with economic (94.4%) and the protein-based (95%) allocation methods. We include an analysis of the allocation between fluid milk and excess cream at the processing plant. This analysis shows 19.8% of the post-farm (after allocation to beef) milk production burden allocated to the excess cream. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


The experimental objective was to determine the dose effect of live yeast culture (YC) on rumen fermentation profiles and microbial total cell concentrations in precision-fed dairy heifers exposed to different rapidly fermented carbohydrates diets. A split-plot design with starch level as the whole plot and YC dose as sub-plot was administered in a four-period (21 d) 4 × 4 Latin square balanced for carryover effects. Eight Holstein heifers were allocated to two starch treatments (28% starch: HS; 17% starch: LS) and to a sequence of YC doses (0, 10, 30, and 50 g d−1). Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not different among YC doses or starch level, but molar proportions of propionate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate were higher for HS than for LS. Mean ruminal ammonia concentration was increased in HS-fed heifers. Heifers fed HS had an increased number of viable, non-viable, and total fluid-associated bacteria, particle-associated bacteria, and total bacteria. Increasing YC dose linearly beyond 10 g d−1 decreased viable and total fluid-associated bacteria. The effects of various YC doses on ruminal fermentation products, pH, and microbial total cell concentrations indicate diet dependency between source of readily available carbohydrates and YC addition in dairy heifers. © 2014, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.

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