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Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Villablanca A.,Olink Bioscience | Christensen S.L.T.,Copenhagen University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Although the potential of biomarkers to aid in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recognized and numerous biomarker candidates have been reported in the literature, to date only few molecular markers have been approved for daily clinical use.Methods: In order to improve the translation of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from a case-control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals.Results: After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Transferrin Receptor-1 (TFRC), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) and cancer antigen 242 (CA242) showed additive effect. This biomarker panel identified CRC patients with a sensitivity of 56% at 90% specificity and thus the performance is sufficiently high to further investigate this combination of five proteins as serological biomarkers for detection of CRC. Furthermore, when applying the indicators to identify early-stage CRC a combination of CEA, TFRC and CA242 resulted in a ROC curve with an area under the curve of 0.861.Conclusions: Five plasma protein biomarkers were found to be potential CRC discriminators and three of these were additionally found to be discriminators of early-stage CRC. These explorative data in symptomatic individuals demonstrates the feasibility of the multiplex proximity extension assay for screening of potential serological protein biomarkers and warrants independent analyses in a larger sample cohort, including asymptomatic individuals, to further validate the performances of our CRC biomarker panel. © 2013 Thorsen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Assarsson E.,Olink Bioscience | Villablanca A.,Olink Bioscience | And 17 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2011

A high throughput protein biomarker discovery tool has been developed based on multiplexed proximity ligation assays in a homogeneous format in the sense of no washing steps. The platform consists of four 24-plex panels profiling 74 putative biomarkers with sub-pM sensitivity each consuming only 1 μl of human plasma sample. The system uses either matched monoclonal antibody pairs or the more readily available single batches of affinity purified polyclonal antibodies to generate the target specific reagents by covalently linking with unique nucleic acid sequences. These paired sequences are united by DNA ligation upon simultaneous target binding forming a PCR amplicon. Multiplex proximity ligation assays thereby converts multiple target analytes into real-time PCR amplicons that are individually quantified using microfluidic high capacity qPCR in nano liter volumes. The assay shows excellent specificity, even in multiplex, by its dual recognition feature, its proximity requirement, and most importantly by using unique sequence specific reporter fragments on both antibodybased probes. To illustrate the potential of this protein detection technology, a pilot biomarker research project was performed using biobanked plasma samples for the detection of colorectal cancer using a multivariate signature. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Christensen S.L.T.,Copenhagen University | Wurtz S.T.,Copenhagen University | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | And 9 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Worldwide more than one million women are annually diagnosed with breast cancer. A considerable fraction of these women receive systemic adjuvant therapy; however, some are cured by primary surgery and radiotherapy alone. Prognostic biomarkers guide stratification of patients into different risk groups and hence improve management of breast cancer patients. Plasma levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its natural inhibitor Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) have previously been associated with poor patient outcome and resistance to certain forms of chemotherapy. To pursue additional prognostic information from MMP-9 and TIMP-1, the level of the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 complex (MMP-9:TIMP-1) was investigated in plasma from breast cancer patients.Methods: Detection of protein:protein complexes in plasma was performed using a commercially available ELISA kit and, for the first time, the highly sensitive in-solution proximity ligation assay (PLA). We screened plasma from 465 patients with primary breast cancer for prognostic value of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex. Both assays were validated and applied for quantification of MMP-9:TIMP-1 concentration. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the association between the concentration of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex and clinicopathological data and disease free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate survival analyses.Results: Following successful validation both assays were applied for MMP-9:TIMP-1 measurements. Of the clinicopathological parameters, only menopausal status demonstrated significant association with the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex; P = 0.03 and P = 0.028 for the ELISA and PLA measurements, respectively. We found no correlation between the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex and DFS neither in univariate nor in multivariate survival analyses.Conclusions: Despite earlier reports linking MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with prognosis in breast cancer patients, we here demonstrate that plasma levels of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex hold no prognostic information in primary breast cancer as a stand-alone marker. We demonstrate that the highly sensitive in-solution PLA can be employed for measurements of protein:protein complexes in plasma. © 2013 Thorsen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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