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Clulow J.,University of Newcastle | Clulow S.,University of Newcastle | Guo J.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | French A.J.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae) has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus).Methods: Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs), and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina) were also examined with hCG.Results: When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU) induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU) increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU). Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone) to more than 50% (p = 0.035), and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p<0.001). Heterologous pituitary extracts administered with hCG were no more effective than hCG alone (p = 0.628).Conclusions: This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana) and some bufonids) that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG). The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU) administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU), 24 hours apart. This study is also the first to demonstrate in an amphibian species that responds to mammalian gonadotropins that an increase in the ovulation rate occurs after priming with a gonadotropin (PMSG) with FSH activity. © 2012 Clulow et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wu B.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu B.J.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Dong F.L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong F.L.,Soochow University of China | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as histone H2A variants, ensure appropriate gene activation or silencing during oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. We examined global localization and expression of the histone H2A variants, including H2A.Bbd, H2A.Z and H2A.X, during mouse oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. Immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies against various histone H2A variants showed their localization and changes during oogenesis and preimplantation development. H2A.Bbd and H2A.Z were almost absent from nuclei of growing oocytes (except 5-day oocyte), whereas H2A.X was deposited in nuclei throughout oogenesis and in preimplantation embryos. In germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte chromatin, H2A.Bbd was detected as a weak signal, whereas no fluorescent signal was detected in GV breakdown (GVBD) or metaphase II (MII) oocytes; H2A.Z showed intense signals in chromatin of GV, GVBD and MII oocytes. H2A. Bbd showed very weak signals in both pronucleus and 2-cell embryo nuclei, but intense signals were detected in nuclei from 4-cell embryo to blastula. The H2A.Z signal was absent from pronucleus to morula chromatin, whereas a fluorescent signal was detected in blastula nuclei. Our results suggest that histone H2A variants are probably involved in reprogramming of genomes during oocyte meiosis or after fertilization. © FUNPEC-RP.

Zhao L.X.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Zhao L.X.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Zhao G.P.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Guo R.Q.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2012

Genomic imprinting and DNA methylation play an important role in mammalian development. Many cloned animals showed heterogeneous DNA methylation profiles. However, there are fewer reports in cloned lambs because of a lack of genomic imprinting information. In this study, we investigated DNA methylation patterns in CpG islands and differentially methylated regions of putative imprinted gene Peg10 and imprinted genes Dlk1, Igf2R and H19 in cloned lambs. Five organs from two cloned lambs died shortly after birth and two normal controls were investigated. We observed normal DNA methylation profiles in cloned lambs. The imprinted genes Dlk1, Igf2R and H19 in livers, kidneys, hearts, muscles and lungs of the two cloned lambs exhibited relatively normal DNA methylation, except for Peg10 showing some differences between controls and cloned lambs. Our results indicate that somatic cell nuclear transfer-produced sheep exhibited relatively normal DNA methylation pattern and experienced normal DNA methylation reprogramming at imprinted loci. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Wu B.-J.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Xue H.-Y.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Chen L.-P.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Dai Y.-F.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2013

Kunming mouse strain is widely used in China, and the superovulation was administrated with 10 IU PMSG combined with 10 IU hCG. In this study, the effects of the exogenous gonadotropins on superovulation of Kunming mice and embryo quality derived from the superovulated mice were assessed. Female mice at 6-8-wk old were superovulated with 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 IU PMSG/hCG and mated with male mice. The embryos were retrieved at 2.5 d post coitum. No statistic difference was observed for the number of 2-cell embryos collected per mouse between control and 5 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group, but the number significantly increased for 7.5 and 10 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group (P<0.05). The average number of 4-cell and 8-cell embryos collected from each mouse significantly differed between control and 5, 7.5, 10 IU PMSG/hCG treatment groups (P<0.05). When 8-cell embryos derived from mice administrated with 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 IU PMSG/hCG were cultured in KSOM, the blastocyst development rates were 88.1, 94.7, 96.1 and 94.3%, respectively, which were similar to control (P>0.05). This indicated that exogenous gonadotropins have no effects on development of Kunming mouse embryos. The quality of blastocyst was assessed by labelling with Hoechst and propidium iodide for inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells, the result showed that ICM/TE ratio significantly decreased for 10 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group compared with control, 5 and 7.5 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group (P<0.05). This suggested that the embryo quality of Kunming mouse has been affected by high dose of gonadotropins. © 2013 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Guo J.,Inner Mongolia University | Guo J.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Wu B.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | Li S.,Inner Mongolia Saikexing Reproductive Biotechnology Co. | And 10 more authors.
Stem Cells International | Year: 2014

Blastocyst injection and morula aggregation are commonly used to evaluate stem cell pluripotency based on chimeric contribution of the stem cells. To assess the protocols for generating chimeras from stem cells, 8-cell mouse embryos were either injected or cocultured with mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. Although a significantly higher chimera rate resulted from blastocyst injection, the highest germline contribution resulted from injection of 8-cell embryos with embryonic stem cells. The fully agouti colored chimeras were generated from both injection and coculture of 8-cell embryos with embryonic stem cells. Additionally, microsatellite DNA screening showed that the fully agouti colored chimeras were fully embryonic stem cell derived mice. Unlike embryonic stem cells, the mouse chimeras were only generated from injection of 8-cell embryos with induced pluripotent stem cells and none of these showed germline transmission. The results indicated that injection of 8-cell embryos is the most efficient method for assessing stem cell pluripotency and generating induced pluripotent stem cell chimeras, embryonic stem cell chimeras with germline transmission, and fully mouse embryonic stem cell derived mice. © 2014 Jitong Guo et al.

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