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Zheng J.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Wei X.,University of British Columbia | Liu Y.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Liu G.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2016

In order to improve environment and relieve poverty, China has launched a series of major ecological engineering programs since the 1980s. These include the Natural Forest Conservation Program, the Sloping Cropland Conversion Program, the Desertification Combating Program, and the Protection Forest System Construction Program. There is a growing need to quantify the contributions of these programs to regional carbon stocks. However, the lack of widely accepted, robust methods is one of the key obstacles to quantification. The objective of this study was to review existing methods for quantifying regional carbon stocks and then recommend suitable ones for the Chinese ecological engineering programs. We expect that the recommended methods can be applied to elsewhere in the world where there are similar characteristics and objectives. © 2016, Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yao G.,Beijing Forestry University | Ding G.,Beijing Forestry University | Zang Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang J.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

In order to provide theoretical supporting for land utilization planning and management in windy desert region, canonical discriminant analysis and factor analysis were used to distinguish and study the soil quality of two subsidence areas (SAs) respectively subsided in 2004 and 2005 in Bulianta coal mining area located at south rim of Maowusu desert. The results showed that soil moisture content, hardness, total N and P of the two SAs were significantly lower than control area (CA) (p<0.05). At partial slope positions with serious ground surface disturbance, volume weight declined remarkably (p<0.05) while soil porosity increased remarkably (p<0.05). Compared with the CA, total K and organic matter of the two SAs showed no significant variation (p>0.05), and available nutrient displayed an activating tendency on the whole. With the calculation by a canonical discriminant function which mainly reflects the disturbance degree of soil nutrient, sample plots of CA and SAs respectively subsided in 2005, 2004 can be divided into 3 grades, which including "no effect", "had effect" and "seriously effect". 11 soil quality indexes were summarized to 5 comprehensive factors by factor analysis, and comprehensive factor scores of soil quality of the sample plots in SAs were represented visually with radar diagrams and scatter diagrams. Canonical discrimination function distinguished the situation of soil quality of CA and each SA well, and factor analysis reflected characteristic of soil quality variance of each SA comprehensively and visually.

Yang W.,Desertification Research Institute | Yang W.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Dong H.,Desertification Research Institute | Dong H.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Low-covered vegetation is one of typical vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid areas of China through a longterm natural succession. Conventional studies concluded that when vegetation cover arrives at 40%, sandland is fixed. When vegetation cover is from 20% to 40%, sandland is under semi-shifting and semi-fixing. However, in practice it has been found that at low vegetation coverage, the horizontal distribution pattern of shrubs can have marked effects on fixation of shifting sands. There have many artificial or natural sand-fixing woodlands in arid and semi-arid areas of China which vegetation cover was lower than 40%. This paper tests the hypothesis that the horizontal distribution pattern of sand-fixing woodland at low vegetation coverage has the same law as shrubs. We compared the windbreak and sand-fixing effects of woodland with 20% coverage between belted and random patterns. Results show: (1) Compared to wind speed in open field, the relative wind speed of belted pattern is lower than random pattern, with 53. 89% and 36. 82% reduction rate at 200cm and 50cm height respectively; (2) compared to relatively regular changes in belted pattern, the horizontal flow field of wind speed in random pattern is very complicated, mainly affected by spatial pattern of crown; (3) The wind speed in random pattern is 27.45% and 22.55% higher than that in open field at 50cm and 200cm height respectively, the local wind uplift forms a strong eddy; (4) Average surface roughness of the belted pattern is 1.01cm, about 5 times of random pattern; (5) On the whole, among belted patterns the first belt was showed significant effects in reducing wind speed; and the wind speed after the second belt was is lower than that after the first belt; but superposition benefit was not obvious of reduced wind speed effect one by one belts; (6) the belted pattern has local uplift function at the base of the first belts windward which has relatively strong erosion effect in the basal part of forest belt, and the root systems for most of trees were eroded down and outcropped in the first belt, and the sand flow through a region was accumulated at the lateral of crown behind the belt; (7) Random pattern exists many low roughness zones in random pattern matching with local wind uplift zones, the strong eddy in these local uplift zones is an important driving factor of blowout pits. Arid and semiarid areas occupy about one third of China territory with less than 400 mm of annual precipitation. Traditional approaches to ecosystem restoration in China have focused on afforestation with high stand density such as the Three Norths Shelter Forest System Project and the Sand Control Program. However, the long-term results of those practices have been proved economically costly and ecologically unsustainable to some extent, with groundwater shortage and soil erosion increasing. We conclude from our experiment that soundly horizontal distribution pattern of sand-fixing woodlands at low vegetation coverage can fix shifting sands effectively, which may be helpful to environmental improvement and sustainable development of arid and semiarid regions in China.

Lyu S.-J.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Liu H.-M.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Liu H.-M.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry science | Wu Y.-L.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

The effects of grazing on spatial distribution relationships of constructive species (Stipa breviflora) and dominant species (Cleistogenes songorica and Allium polyrhizum) in the desert steppe were analyzed by different analysis methods. The results showed that the landscape characteristic of S. breviflora + C. songorica + A. polyrhizum community was mainly affected by soil properties and inherent properties of populations. The spatial distribution variability influenced by continuous grazing (CG) was in order of A. polyrhizum > C. songorica > S. breviflora. The influence of CG upon the density of S. breviflora and A. polyrhizum was notable, while little influence upon the density of C. songorica was observed. S. breviflora density increased with the increasing C. songorica density in CG area, whereas it increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing C. songorica density in enclosed area (CK). S. breviflora density decreased with the increasing A. polyrhizum density in CG and CK area. It was concluded that there was density effect for plant interspecific relationships which could disappear with the presence of outside interference. Plant interspecific relationships were multiple with the difference in populations or interference conditions. ©, 2014, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.

Chen G.-T.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Lv S.-H.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhang W.-J.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Wang X.-J.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science
2012 1st International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics, Agro-Geoinformatics 2012 | Year: 2012

As a case study on analysis of soil erosion change, in Hulunbeir, Inner Mongolia, China, was once one of the most severely eroded regions in semi-arid and semi-humid China. However, its soil erosion is becoming a matter of concern for more and more people in recent years. The main body of vegetation is Daxinganling virgin forests and Hulunbeir grassland, However, large areas of forest were destroyed and excessive grazing in pastureland, which resulted in the increase of soil erosion. Fortunately, the government has taken corresponding measures to prevention and control soil erosion in recent years. In this study, based on TM imagines, and employing ArcGIS 9.3 technique and empirical Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model, this paper studied the dynamics of soil erosion at the Hulunbeir from 1995 to 2005 years. Use of the Markov model to predicted the soil erosion in Hulunbeir next 15 years. The results show that the main erosion types arte the tiny degree erosion as clue, above the light degree erosion is 10 percent of Hhulunbeir area in the past 10 years from 1995 to 2005. The net decrease of the tiny degree erosion in 2000 is 534.33km2 compared with 1995, and the area of above the light degree erosion increased 580.02km2 from 1995 to 2000. This explains that the soil erosion of Hulunbeir area shows the increasing tendency in the past 5 years. The net increased of the tiny degree erosion in 2005 is 8326.69km 2 compared with 2000, and the area of above the light degree erosion is decreased by 8360.54km2. This shows the decreasing tendency of the soil erosion intention in Hulunbeir region. And comparing to 2000 year, the soil erosion have undergone great changes. Then, the development and the future tendency of soil erosion in 2010,2015 and 2020 year that uesed simulated with Markov process, the soil erosion intensity for Hulunbeir area will be alleviated, among which above the light degree erosion land area will be decreased by 5.4%, 4.4% and 3.9% proportion to that of 2005. Indicating that soil erosion had been substantially controlled. © 2012 IEEE.

Chen G.-T.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Zhang W.-J.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Lv S.-H.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
2013 2nd International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics: Information for Sustainable Agriculture, Agro-Geoinformatics 2013 | Year: 2013

As an important factor of ecology, vegetation is not only enduring the climate change but also has a feedback on climate change positively. It is a sensitive indicator for environment change. Climate is the uppermost factor deciding vegetation type and distributing on the earth, while vegetation is the brightest reflection and integration symbol about climate. Using the distribution of arid and humid regions of China, the typical semi-arid/semi-humid region(Xilamulun river) as a study areas. Xilamulun river has important ecological significance because it is ecological conservation and water source protection area of Northern china. As an index of denoting basin's vegetation cover, NDVI is influenced by many climatic factors such as precipitation and average air temperature. The influence of precipitation on vegetation coverage of xilamulun river basin was qualitatively analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat TM (MSS) image during the recent 10 years, and analyze the vegetation dynamic changes in xilamulun river basin and its relationship with human activities. Firstly, the influence of exterior factor, such as phonology and relative radiometric correction, on NDVI was removed by normalization of different period remote sensing image. Preliminary Comparison of coverage in Xilamulun river, The coverage appeared to have a increase trend from 2000 to 2010. Therefore, Through protracted efforts the basin has made great achievements in the protection and nurturing of the ecological environment, of which afforestation is an outstanding example. Analysis of dynamic changes of the vegetation covers in two phases from 2000 to 2005, 2005 to 2010, respectively. The vegetation cover showed an1 increased trend from 2000 to 2010, which increased significantly in 2000 to 2005. The spring and winter showed in the opposite direction change in 2000 to 2005, but the same direction change trend in 2005 to 2010 by synthesized analysis of relationship of precipitation and vegetation cover. There are also an opposite direction change trend in spring and fall in two phases. The main factors influencing the vegetation cover change is human activity rather than climate factors in 2000 to 2010. According to the comprehensive analysis of precipitation and related data of the protection of the ecological environment in Balin right banner, human activities were proven as the main reason of vegetation fraction change during 2000-2010, such as conversion of cropland to forest, ecological migration afforestation by the Balin right banner. Finally, the residual analysis of NDVI indicates that human activities have promoted or destroyed the vegetation cover in some areas of xilamulun river basin.

Hu E.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Wang X.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Zhang W.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Hai L.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Plant populations comprise individuals of the same plant species existing in a specific area and time. Population structure and spatial patterns are important topics studied by population ecologists. In particular, monitoring plant population structure can help us understand the processes within and between different populations and identify drivers that control plant population dynamics. Analysis of the spatial distributions of populations is important because spatial patterns can reveal many biological characteristics of populations, their intra-and interspecific relationships with co-existing populations, as well as indicate factors underlying environmental factors and related concerns. Thus, population structure and spatial patterns are important indicators of population processes. We studied Betula platyphylla populations which dominate a mountainous area of forest vegetation on Wula Mountain of Inner Mongolia. Pure stands of this tree species are found on shaded or semi-shaded slopes at altitudes above 1800m. We analyzed the demographic structure and spatial patterns of B. platyphylla stands in the Wulashan Nature Reserve by establishing three 30m×30m sample plots, and classified older plants into three age groups: middle age, near maturity, and mature plants. Spatial clustering and population dynamics were examined over a range of distances between trees while using tree diameter classes serving as a proxy of tree age, and point pattern analysis (Ripley's K-function). Point pattern analysis is widely used for the research of population spatial distribution pattern and inter-species relationships at different scales. In this paper Ripley's K-function method, which is a type of point pattern analysis, is also used in this analysis. To derive age classes based on diameter, we selected one representative tree in each plot, measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) and later classified the trees into three classes (9. 4, 15. 7, and 19. 0 cm DBH), did trunk analysis, measured their ages and grouped them into tree ages classes of 30, 54, and 90 years, respectively, and used these data for the basis of dividing the trees into diameter and age classes. Based on our analyses and other existing reports, we can classify the B. platyphylla population on Wula Mountain to eight diameter classes: seedling (class I), young trees (class II), middle aged-trees (classes III-IV), and mature trees (classes V-VIII). Our results suggest: (1) the demographic structure of the B. platyphylla population on the Wulashan Nature Reserve follows a typical "pyramid" shape suggesting a high regeneration rate and growth of many young plants in this population; (2) self-thinning is common in this population, which is explained by high intraspecific competition for space and resources and a higher death rate in age classes III and IV; (3) the survivorship curve of the B. platyphylla population is close to a Deevey I curve; (4) the B. platyphylla population exhibits an aggregated distribution when it is dominated by young and middle aged plants. Distributions are random when it is dominated by mature and old trees. Therefore, we predict that as the population matures, its spatial distribution will change from aggregated to random. We found spatial clustering occurs most strongly at distances of less than 1. 5 m. This means two or more individual plants can form a cluster. Based on our findings we conclude the spatial patterns of the B. platyphylla population in this area of uniform environment conditions are controlled by biotic interactions and local ecological characteristics. In summary, we conducted a detailed analysis of the population age structure and spatial patterns of a B. platyphylla population in Wulashan Nature Reserve to elucidate peculiarities of population processes and their drivers. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical basis and help develop strategies for balanced natural resource protection in and around the Wula Mountain area. Our data can also serve as a starting point for more in-depth research.

Yang W.B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Tang J.N.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Tang J.N.,Desertification Research Institute | Liang H.R.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | And 2 more authors.
Science China Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Soil moisture is the key resource constraint in arid ecosystems, and has been a focus of research on restoration. However, quantitative studies on the contribution of rainfall to deep soil rainfall infiltration are lacking. In this study, we used the YWB-01 Deep Soil Infiltration Water Recorder which had been invented by ourselves to measure the quantity of rain infiltration into deep soil, 150 cm below ground, in four locations in China: Mu Us Sandy Land and Ulan Buh, Tengger, and Badan Jilin deserts over a 2-year period. We found: (1) Deep soil rainfall infiltration decreased progressively from east to west and from semiarid to arid areas, with two locations completely lacking rainfall infiltration. Heavy rain was important to deep soil infiltration in shifting sandy land of arid and semiarid areas. (2) Seasonal variation of infiltration was correlated with rainfall, with a time lag that was less apparent in areas with more rainfall. (3) For single intense rainfall events, infiltration maximums occurred 40-55 h after the rainfall, during which the infiltration rates increased rapidly before reaching a peak, and then decreased slowly. Continuous infiltration could last about 150 h. Rainfall infiltration was determined by the combined action of intensity, quantity and duration. Rainfall with low intensity, long duration, and large quantity was most favorable for deep soil infiltration. Our results can be used in water resource assessments and protection during eco-restoration in the arid and semiarid areas in China. © 2014 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhang L.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry science | Wang X.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry science | Zhao L.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry science | Niu H.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry science
2011 International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering, RSETE 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

The vegetation, as one of positive factors for desertification control, has received extensive attention of scholars from different research fields. In this paper, the structure and dynamic characteristic of Ulmus pumila L sparse forest in Horqin sandy land and Otindag sandy land were investigated. The results showed that Ulmus pumila L sparse forest was monodominant community, and had simple structure in both two sandy lands, of which the stand density was separately 34 plants/hm2 in Horqin sandy land and 105 plants/hm 2 in Otindag sandy land. In addition, Ulmus pumila L. populations in both sandy lands had declining age structure, and were suffering serious degradation due to deficiency of seedling renewal. Therefore, we concluded that there might be twice degradations in Horqin sandy land in recent years, separately happened in recent 20 years and the period during 40 to 30 years ago; the degradation of Otindag sandy land happened from 30 years ago. The death rate of young individuals was lowest, and the highest death rate occurred in the age of 50-60 in Horqin sandy land and of 80-90 in Otindag sandy land. Their survival curves both tend to be Deevey I type. © 2011 IEEE.

Bao H.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Wang X.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science | Zhang W.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science
2011 International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering, RSETE 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

The vegetation map, with a complex landform of DAHUABEI region in Wula mountain was produced based on the field vegetation investigation, and image interpretation, using the ALOS data and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The spatial distribution of the main vegetation types and their relations with topographical factors were statistically analyzed under the support of GIS, combining the vegetation map and topographical factors in the study area. The results showed that, (1) vegetation types showed a distinct vertical spectrum, from low to high elevations as follows: typical steppe grassland dominanted the baseband of the mountain; Prunus mongolica thickets, Pinus tabulaeformis + Ulmus glaucescens + Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Prunus pedunculata thickets, Stipa krylouii communities occupied in sequence on the sunny slope; Prunus mongolica thickets, Prunus pedunculata thickets, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, Betula platyphylla forest appeared regularly on the shady slope; (2) from grassland to forest, the diversity of communities and species diversity were significantly increased; (3) there was close relationship between slope and vegetation distribution. Moisture, soil conditions in shady slopes were good, mainly in the development of plant community with mesophyte as constructive species, such as, Betula platyphylla, Pinus tabulaeformis. The main vegetations, shrub and grass were drought-resistant with the conditions of great soil evaporation, poverty soil in sunny slope, such as, Prunus pedunculata, Prunus mangolica and Rosa xanthina; (4) slope gradients also influenced strongly on distribution in the mountain. Different vegetation types were suitable to different slope gradients, all types can be observed under 45°, and when slope was above 45°, vegetation types were obviously disappeared.© 2011 IEEE.

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