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Gao C.-D.,Beijing Forestry University | Gao C.-D.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Sun X.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang L.,Beijing Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2010

By an in situ approach of open-sample pole, we studied carbon dioxide flux in the profiles of 4 types of soil, i. e., chestnut soil, sierozem soil, fragmental soil and gray-cinnamon soil. The results were that 1) CO2 flux increased with soil depth at 0-60 cm, and then decreased at greater soil depths. 2) Mean soil CO2 flux at 0-70 cm depth was 660 μmol/(m2 · h), ranging from -9076 to 16988 μmol/(m2 · h). A total of 254.6 t/(km2 · a) CO2 gas may be released from the soil into the atmosphere if the soil at 0-70 cm depth was exposed to the air because of a change in land use/land cover. 3) Soil CO2 flux differed greatly in the soil types, and the amount of CO2 released from forest soils (gray-cinnamon soil and fragment soil) was larger than that from grassland soils (sierozem soil and chestnut soil). 4) In the flux-depth curve of each soil type, there was 1-2 turning points which are correlated with soil structure, root distribution and calcium accumulation layer. 5) Soil CO2 flux changed as a function of season, which was greater during growing season than other seasons, demonstrating a phenomenon of the soil absorbing CO2 in other seasons. Our results suggest that soils should be treated carefully when breaking the ground, to reduce the release of soil CO2 into atmosphere. Source


Bao H.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Bao H.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | Gao J.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Ma Q.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Hu S.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association | Year: 2013

The 5×4 incomplete diallel cross design with nine inbreeds of oil sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were conducted to analyze the genetic effects from diploid embryo, cytoplasm and diploid maternal plant for the oil content (OC), linoleic acid content (LAC) and oleic acid content (OAC) traits of seeds, by using the genetic model for seed quantitative traits of diploid plant. The results showed that all of the traits were simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects from embryo genes, cytoplasmic genes and maternal plant genes. OC and LAC were mainly controlled by cytoplasmic and maternal genetic effects, while expression of OAC was mainly controlled by cytoplasmic×environment interaction effect. The cytoplasmic heritabilities were larger than the embryo and maternal heritabilitIies for OC and LAC traits, but the cytoplasmic×environment interaction heritabilities were more important than others effect for OAC. It were more important that the positive cytoplasmic correlations (rC) and maternal dominant correlations (rDm) between the OC and LAC, while OC was negative correlation with OAC; Moreover, significant negative correlation were observed between the LAC and OAC, including cytoplasmic effect, maternal additive effect, maternal dominant effect and embryo dominant×environment interaction effect here were genetic linkage or pleiotropism among cytoplasmic genes of OC and LAC, and including maternal dominant gene. While genetic linkage or pleiotropism were revealed among maternal additive gene and maternal dominant gene for OAC and LAC. Source


Zhang X.Y.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Huo H.L.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Xi X.M.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | Liu L.L.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Rhizoctonia solani is the causal agent of stem canker and black scurf in potato, resulting in significant yield and economic losses. To understand the infection process of R. solani and potato responses to the pathogen, histological observation of inoculated potato was performed under light and electron microscopes, under laboratory conditions. R. solani was observed at the invasion site, for the initial infection time, and for the presence of infection structures (appressoria, infection cushions). These attributes were compared when R. solani affected different parts of the host: aboveground stems, underground stems, tubers; as well as in different potato cultivars: ‘Desiree’ (resistant to R. solani) and ‘Atlantic’ (susceptible). In aboveground stems of potato, the invasion of R. solani was mainly limited to intercellular spaces. In underground stems and tubers, the primary invasion sites were epidermal cracks and lenticels. Initial infection time was 8 to 12 h post inoculation (HPI) in aboveground stems, 8 HPI in underground stems, and 4 HPI in tubers. The hyphae of R. solani produced various infection structures, with a few infection cushions, and a large number of appressoria with different morphologies. In aboveground stems, more infection structures were found than in underground stems and tubers. ‘Desiree’ had fewer numbers and smaller sizes of lenticels, thicker cuticle and periderm, and fewer epidermal cracks compared to ‘Atlantic’. Fewer numbers of infection structure of R. solani were observed in ‘Desiree’ than in ‘Atlantic’. It was suggested that the epidermal and perithelial structures of potato were related to disease resistance, such as number and size of lenticels, thickness of cuticle and periderm, and epidermal cracks. © 2015 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging Source


Wang B.,China Agricultural University | Wang B.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | Yu J.,China Agricultural University | Zhu D.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) belongs to a protein subfamily containing a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain (WD) repeat structure. Compelling evidence indicates that RACK1 can interact with many signal molecules and affect different signal transduction pathways. In this study, we cloned a maize RACK1 gene (ZmRACK1) by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence of ZmRACK1 had seven WD repeats in which there were typical GH (glycine-histidine) and WD dipeptides. Comparison with OsRACK1 from rice revealed 89% identity at the amino acid level. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR showed that ZmRACK1 was expressed in all analyzed tissues of maize and that its transcription in leaves was induced by abscisic acid and jasmonate at a high concentration. Overexpression of ZmRACK1 in maize led to a reduction in symptoms caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) on maize leaves. The expression levels of the pathogenesis-related protein genes, PR-1 and PR-5, increased 2.5-3 times in transgenic maize, and reactive oxygen species production was more active than in the wild-type. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that ZmRACK1 could interact with RAC1, RAR1 and SGT1. This study and previous work leads us to believe that ZmRACK1 may form a complex with regulators of plant disease resistance to coordinate maize reactions to pathogens. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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