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An Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | An Y.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Zhou P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiao Q.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry science | Shi D.,Heze University
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2014

Organic acids (OA) may affect plant resistance to aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils. However, limited information is available on the effects of different organic acids on Al resistance in alfalfa. We investigated the effects of foliar application of organic acids (succinic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acid) to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under Al stress. Seedlings were grown in pH 4.5 nutrient solution containing Al at 0 or 100 μM, and were sprayed with water or 100 μM of oxalic acid, malic acid, citric acid, or succinic acid every 3 d during a 10 d experiment. Aluminum stress caused significant reduction in alfalfa growth (reflected by above-ground biomass, root weight and root length), root activity, mineral nutrient concentrations (Ca, K, Mg, Mn and Zn), and a significant increase in leaf membrane lipid peroxidation. Foliar application of the four organic acids, especially succinic acid, alleviated Al toxicity, as demonstrated by the increase in plant growth and root activity, as well as reduction in lipid peroxidation. Oxalic acid and malic acid treatments significantly increased oxalate exudation and decreased Al concentration in roots exposed to Al stress. Succinic acid treatment significantly increased accumulation of all four organic acids in roots, accumulation of Ca, K, Mg, Mn and Zn, and up-regulated the gene transcription of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in roots. Our results suggest that the promotion of oxalate exudation from roots through exogenous application of oxalate and malate could contribute to the improvement in Al resistance of alfalfa, and the positive effects of exogenous application of succinate on Al resistance may be associated with the increased endogenous accumulation of all four organic acids in roots, which may constitute an organic-acid detoxification system in alfalfa. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Zhang Q.,Inner Mongolia University of Technology | Li H.,Inner Mongolia University of Technology | Zhao X.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry science | Zheng Y.,Inner Mongolia University of Technology | Zhou D.,Inner Mongolia University of Technology
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2015

We propose a mechanism that there are matching relations between mRNA sequences and corresponding post-spliced introns, and introns play a significant role in the process of gene expression. In order to reveal the sequence matching features, Smith-Waterman local alignment method is used on C. elegans mRNA sequences to obtain optimal matched segments between exon-exon sequences and their corresponding introns. Distribution characters of matching frequency on exon-exon sequences and sequence characters of optimal matched segments are studied. Results show that distributions of matching frequency on exon-exon junction region have obvious differences, and the exon boundary is revealed. Distributions of the length and matching rate of optimal matched segments are consistent with sequence features of siRNA and miRNA. The optimal matched segments have special sequence characters compared with their host sequences. As for the first introns and long introns, matching frequency values of optimal matched segments with high GC content, rich CG dinucleotides and high λCG values show the minimum distribution in exon junction complex (EJC) binding region. High λCG values in optimal matched segments are main characters in distinguishing EJC binding region. Results indicate that EJC and introns have competitive and cooperative relations in the process of combining on protein coding sequences. Also intron sequences and protein coding sequences do have concerted evolution relations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hou D.,Inner Mongolia University | He J.,Inner Mongolia University | Lu C.,Inner Mongolia University | Sun Y.,Inner Mongolia University | And 3 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Surface sediment and water samples were collected from Daihai Lake to study the biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus, to estimate the loads of these nutrients, and to assess their effects on water quality. The contents and spatial distributions of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and different nitrogen forms in sediments were analyzed. The results showed that concentrations of TN and TP in surface sediments ranged from 0.27 to 1.78 g/kg and from 558.31 to 891.29 mg/kg, respectively. Ratios of C: N ranged between 8.2 and 12.1, which indicated that nitrogen accumulated came mainly from terrestrial source. Ratios of N: P in all sampling sites were below 10, which indicated that N was the limiting nutrient for algal growth in this lake. Effects of environment factors on the release of nitrogen and phosphorus in lake sediments were also determined; high pH values could encourage the release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Modified Carlson's trophic state index (TS I M) and comprehensive trophic state index (TS I C) were applied to ascertain the trophic classification of the studied lake, and the values of TS I M and TS I C ranged from 53.72 to 70.61 and from 47.73 to 53.67, respectively, which indicated that the Daihai Lake was in the stage of hypereutropher. © 2013 Dekun Hou et al. Source

Han J.,CAS Institute of Botany | Chen J.,University of Toledo | Chen J.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Han G.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2014

Legacy effects are the ecological inheritances produced by preceding actions, which have been underlined more on agricultural land use, wildfire, invasive and removal species, forest management, and extreme climates in previous research; however, very few studies have shown concern toward the grazing legacy effects on key ecosystem functions such as the carbon cycle. A nested random block design was employed in 2012, with historical grazing as the block factor and precipitation as a nested factor, to explore the regulatory mechanisms on the carbon fluxes in a desert steppe. This long-term grazing practice had exerted unique legacy effects on community composition through increasing the proportion of Stipa breviflora Griseb. (Pstipa) by 61.53%, and decreasing species richness (Rsp) by 30.70%, cover by 21.87%, aboveground biomass (AGB) by 31.34%, and carbon allocation (the ratio of ANPP/BNPP) by 15.18%. Moreover, plants had differential adaptations to herbivores. Remarkably, these grazing legacies indirectly promoted plant photosynthesis (GEE) and carbon gain (NEE). Precipitation, as expected, accounted for the variability of GEE by 43% and NEE by 33%. The results revealed that precipitation controlled the magnitude of carbon fluxes while grazing legacies offset the adverse effects of current grazing and, therefore, mediated carbon sequestration. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang Y.,Inner Mongolia Engineering Research Center for Water Saving Agriculture | Bai L.,Inner Mongolia Engineering Research Center for Water Saving Agriculture | Zhao J.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry science | Li X.,Inner Mongolia Engineering Research Center for Water Saving Agriculture
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

In order to study irrigation quota of maize and water saving effect of sprinkler irrigation on Erdos Plateau, a large-scale field experiment was conducted in sprinkler irrigation base of maize in Saiwushu town of Erdos from May to October, 2009. Dynamic variations of soil moisture in maize field, maize yield and its components, water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE) under sprinkler and pipeline irrigation were tested and quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that the changed range of soil moisture in sprinkler treatment was less than that under pipeline irrigation throughout maize growth period. Soil moisture in 20-60 cm layer was slightly higher than the other layers in sprinkler treatment. Water infiltration rate under sprinkler irrigation was lower than that under pipeline irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation quota affected kernel number per ear and seed weight per kernel, and thus maize yield, and slightly affected the ear number on stalk. Difference in yields of maize under sprinkler and pipeline irrigation was not significant when sprinkler irrigation quota was higher than 4965 m 3/hm 2. WUE was 1.26 kg/m 3 in sprinkler irrigation quota of 5430 m 3/hm 2 (17.76% higher than that of pipeline irrigation). The ratio of irrigation to water consumption was 70.40%-88.90%, and it increased with irrigation quota. Without well watered from sowing to seedling stage, numbers of ears on stalk was declined. Source

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