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Santos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Resmini E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Crespo I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pires P.,INNDACYT | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Results: Patients with active CS showed smaller bilateral cerebellar cortex volumes than controls (left, PZ0.035 and right, PZ0.034), as well as a trend toward smaller right cerebellar cortex volumes than patients in remission CS (PZ0.051). No differences were observed in the volume of cerebellar white matter between the three groups. Both right and left cerebellar cortex volumes correlated negatively with triglyceride levels (right: rZK0.358, PZ0.002 and left: rZK0.317, PZ0.005) and age at diagnosis (right: rZK0.433, PZ0.008 and left: rZK0.457, PZ0.005). Left cerebellar cortex volume also correlated positively with visual memory performance (rZ0.245, PZ0.038). Right cerebellar cortex volume positively correlated with quality-of-life scores (rZ0.468, PZ0.004).Conclusions: The cerebellar cortex volume is smaller in active CS patients than in controls. This finding is associated with poor visual memory and quality of life and is mostly pronounced in patients with higher triglyceride levels and older age at diagnosis.Objective: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with neuropsychological deficits. As the cerebellum plays a key role in neuropsychological functions it may be affected in CS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with CS have a smaller cerebellar volume than healthy controls, and to analyse whether cerebellar volume is associated with neuropsychological performance and clinical parameters. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed.Methods: Thirty-six CS patients (15 with active CS and 21 with CS in remission) and 36 controls matched for age, sex, and education underwent neuropsychological testing, quality of life assessment, clinical evaluation, and magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. Cerebellar volumes (white matter and cortex, bilateral) were calculated using FreeSurfer Software. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

Santos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Resmini E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gomez-Anson B.,Neuroradiology Unit | Crespo I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Objective: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with high cardiovascular risk. White matter lesions (WML) are common on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Aim: To investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk, WML, neuropsychological performance and brain volume in CS. Design/methods: Thirty-eight patients with CS (23 in remission, 15 active) and 38 controls sex-, age- and education-level matched underwent a neuropsychological and clinical evaluation, blood and urine tests and 3Tesla brain MRI. WML were analysed with the Scheltens scale. Ten-year cardiovascular risk (10CVR) and vascular age (VA) were calculated according to an algorithm based on the Framingham heart study. Results: Patients in remission had a higher degree of WML than controls and active patients (P<0.001 and P=0.008 respectively), which did not correlate with cognitive performance in any group. WML severity positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r=0.659, P=0.001) and duration of hypertension (r=0.478, P=0.021) in patients in remission. Both patient groups (active and in remission) had higher 10CVR (P=0.030, P=0.041) and VA than controls (P=0.013, P=0.039). Neither the 10CVR nor the VA correlated with WML, although both negatively correlated with cognitive function and brain volume in patients in remission (P<0.05). Total brain volume and grey matter volume in both CS patient groups were reduced compared to controls (total volume: active P=0.006, in remission P=0.012; grey matter: active P=0.001, in remission P=0.003), with no differences in white matter volume between groups. Conclusions: Patients in remission of Cushing's syndrome (but not active patients) have more severe white matter lesions than controls, positively correlated with diastolic pressure and duration of hypertension. Ten-year cardiovascular risk and vascular age appear to be negatively correlated with the cognitive function and brain volume in patients in remission of Cushing's syndrome. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.

Gomez-Anson B.,Neuroradiology Unit | Gomez-Anson B.,Institute Of Recerca Iib Sant Pau | Roman E.,Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau | Roman E.,Institute Of Recerca Iib Sant Pau | And 30 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background & Aim Falls are frequent in patients with cirrhosis but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to determine the neuropsychological, neurological and brain alterations using magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) in cirrhotic patients with falls. Patients and methods Twelve patients with cirrhosis and falls in the previous year were compared to 9 cirrhotic patients without falls. A comprehensive neuropsychological and neurological evaluation of variables that may predispose to falls included: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES), Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale, specific tests to explore various cognitive domains, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale to evaluate parkinsonism, scales for ataxia and muscular strength, and electroneurography. High-field MR (3T) including DTI and structural sequences was performed in all patients. Results The main neuropsychological findings were impairment in PHES (p = 0.03), Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (p = 0.04) and in executive (p<0.05) and visuospatialvisuoconstructive functions (p<0.05) in patients with falls compared to those without. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in the neurological evaluation or in the visual assessment of MRI. MR-DTI showed alterations in white matter integrity in patients with falls compared to those without falls (p<0.05), with local maxima in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and corticospinal tract. These alterations were independent of PHES as a covariate and correlated with executive dysfunction (p<0.05). Conclusions With the limitation of the small sample size, our results suggest that patients with cirrhosis and falls present alterations in brain white matter tracts related to executive dysfunction. These alterations are independent of PHES impairment. © 2015 Gómez-Ansón et al.

Crespo I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Esther G.-M.,Neuroradiology Unit | Santos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Valassi E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Context and objective Cushing's syndrome (CS) is caused by a glucocorticoid excess. This hypercortisolism can damage the prefrontal cortex, known to be important in decision-making. Our aim was to evaluate decision-making in CS and to explore cortical thickness. Subjects and methods Thirty-five patients with CS (27 cured, eight medically treated) and thirty-five matched controls were evaluated using Iowa gambling task (IGT) and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess cortical thickness. The IGT evaluates decision-making, including strategy and learning during the test. Cortical thickness was determined on MRI using freesurfer software tools, including a whole-brain analysis. Results There were no differences between medically treated and cured CS patients. They presented an altered decision-making strategy compared to controls, choosing a lower number of the safer cards (P < 0·05). They showed more difficulties than controls to learn the correct profiles of wins and losses for each card group (P < 0·05). In whole-brain analysis, patients with CS showed decreased cortical thickness in the left superior frontal cortex, left precentral cortex, left insular cortex, left and right rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and right caudal middle frontal cortex compared to controls (P < 0·001). Conclusions Patients with CS failed to learn advantageous strategies and their behaviour was driven by short-term reward and long-term punishment, indicating learning problems because they did not use previous experience as a feedback factor to regulate their choices. These alterations in decision-making and the decreased cortical thickness in frontal areas suggest that chronic hypercortisolism promotes brain changes which are not completely reversible after endocrine remission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Crespo I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Santos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Valassi E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pires P.,INNDACYT | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2015

Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p < 0.05) and more anxiety and depressive symptoms (p < 0.05) than controls. In the IGT, acromegalic patients presented an altered decision-making strategy compared to controls, choosing a lower number of the safer cards (p < 0.05) and higher number of the riskier cards (p < 0.05). Moreover, multiple correlations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and performance in memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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