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Borstel-Hohenraden, Germany

Garate J.A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Stockl J.,Medical University of Vienna | Del Carmen Fernandez-Alonso M.,Chemical and Physical Biology | Artner D.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 7 more authors.
Innate Immunity | Year: 2015

Interfering with LPS binding by the co-receptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) represents a useful approach for down-regulation of MD-2·TLR4-mediated innate immune signaling, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including sepsis syndrome. The antagonistic activity of a series of novel synthetic tetraacylated bis-phosphorylated glycolipids based on the βGlcN(1虠1)αGlcN scaffold was assessed in human monocytic macrophage-like cell line THP-1, dendritic cells and human epithelial cells. Two compounds were shown to inhibit efficiently the LPS-induced inflammatory signaling by down-regulation of the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 to background levels. The binding of the tetraacylated by (R)-3-hydroxy-fatty acids (2 × C12, 2 × C14), 4,4′-bisphosphorylated βGlcN(1虠1)αGlcN-based lipid A mimetic DA193 to human MD-2 was calculated to be 20-fold stronger than that of Escherichia coli lipid A. Potent antagonistic activity was related to a specific molecular shape induced by the β,α(1虠1)-diglucosamine backbone. 'Co-planar' relative arrangement of the GlcN rings was inflicted by the double exo-anomeric conformation around both glycosidic torsions in the rigid β,α(1虠1) linkage, which was ascertained using NOESY NMR experiments and confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast to the native lipid A ligands, the binding affinity of βGlcN(1虠1)αGlcN-based lipid A mimetics to human MD-2 was independent on the orientation of the diglucosamine backbone of the synthetic antagonist within the binding pocket of hMD-2 (rotation by 180°) allowing for two equally efficient binding modes as shown by molecular dynamics simulation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

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