INMI Spallanzani Hospital

Rome, Italy

INMI Spallanzani Hospital

Rome, Italy
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PubMed | Galliera Hospital, University of Rome La Sapienza, University of Bari, INMI Spallanzani Hospital and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

In a recent clinical trial (ACTG 5257), no difference in viral failure (VF) of a first-line cART containing atazanavir/r (ATV/r) or darunavir/r (DRV/r) was found [1]. For the endpoint of discontinuation due to intolerance, the regimen with DRV/r was superior to that of ATV/r (49% of the stops of ATV/r were attributed to jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia). These and other intolerances to ATV/r remain a concern for clinicians.Participants in the ICONA Foundation Study who started cART with 2NRTI+ ATV/r or DRV/r while ART-nave were included. Several endpoints were evaluated: confirmed VF>200 copies/mL after six months of therapy, discontinuation of DRV/r or ATV/r for any reasons or because of intolerance/toxicity (as reported by the treating physician) and the combined endpoint of VF or stop. Survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model stratified by clinical site was used. Patients follow-up accrued from cART initiation to the date of the event or to the date of last available visit/viral load.894 patients starting 2NRTI+ATV/r and 686 2NRTI+DRV/r when ART-nave on average in 2011 (IQR: 2010-2012) were studied. Most common NRTIs used were FTC/TDF (84%) and ABC/3TC (12%). Median age was 40 years, 22% females, 44% heterosexuals. Patients starting ATV/r were more likely to be hepatitis B/C infected (2% and 14% vs 1% and 9%, p=0.001), they started one year earlier (2011 vs 2012, p=0.001), were more likely to be enrolled in sites located in the north of Italy (63% vs 54%, p=0.04), started cART less promptly after HIV diagnosis (5 vs 2 months, p=0.02) and less likely to have started TDF/FTC (83% vs 85%, p=0.02). By two years of cART, 9.8% (95% CI 7.6-12.0) of those starting ATV/r experienced discontinuation due to intolerance/toxicity vs 6.5% in DRV/r group (95% CI 4.2-8.8, p=0.04). After controlling for several potential confounders (age, gender, nation of birth, mode of HIV transmission, hepatitis co-infection status, AIDS diagnosis, nucleoside pair started, baseline CD4 count and viral load and year of starting cART) the relative hazard (RH) for ATV/r vs DRV/r was 2.01 (95% CI 1.23, 3.28, p=0.005). There were no statistical differences detected for any of the other outcomes.Although unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out, our results seem to be consistent with those of the ACTG 5257. When all cause discontinuations were considered, or the composite endpoint of treatment failure, there was no difference between ATV/r- and DRV/r-based regimens.


PubMed | University of Turin, INMI Spallanzani Hospital, S M Annunziata Hospital, San Paolo Hospital and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

Emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir (EVP) is a fixed-dose combination of antiretrovirals (ARV) approved by the European Medicines Agency in November 2011 and introduced in Italy in February 2013. It is a once-a-day single tablet and is licensed in Europe for use only in ARV-nave patients with a viral load (VL) 100,000 copies/mL.To identify factors that may be associated with the use of EVP as first-line regimen in HIV-infected individuals starting cART from ARV-nave in Italy.Clinical sites in ICONA Foundation Study in which 1 person had started EVP were selected for this analysis. From these we included all patients who started an EVP-based cART regimen as well as those starting other cART regimens after the date of introduction of EVP at the site (after February 2013 in any case) and with a VL 100,000 copies/mL from ARV-nave. Characteristics at the time of starting cART were compared using chi-square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis. Factors investigated included: gender, mode of HIV transmission, time from HIV diagnosis, CD4 count, nation of birth, AIDS, HCV-status, age, CD8 count, VL, diabetes, smoking, total and HDL cholesterol, eGFR, blood glucose, level of education and employment and site location. Factors showing unadjusted associations with a p-value of 10% or smaller, were retained in the multivariable model.We identified 183 patients starting EVP and 173 starting the control regimen from 23 sites. The number of patients starting EVP included at each site ranged from 1 to 12 and the number of those starting the control regimen was similar. The most frequently used drugs in the concurrent group were: TDF (75%), FTC (74%), DRV (39%), ATV/r (26%), LPV/r (9%), EFV (13%) and RAL (14%). In univariable analysis, there were differences in median CD4 count (390 cells/mm(3) in EVP versus 348 in controls, p=0.002), time from HIV diagnosis to starting cART (11 versus 3 months, p=0.001) and prevalence of students (6% versus 3%, p=0.07). No differences were observed for all other factors examined. The table shows estimates of the odds ratios (OR) for factors included in the multivariable model.CD4 count was higher in EVP-treated patients compared to controls. Guidelines suggest avoiding initiation of EVP in presence of high VL, possibly explaining this residual difference in CD4. There was also a tendency to prescribe EVP to people with perceived lower adherence or hesitant to start or perhaps with a slow progressing disease.

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