Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau

Bangkok, Thailand

Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau

Bangkok, Thailand
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Thongprajukaew K.,Kasetsart University | Thongprajukaew K.,Prince of Songkla University | Kovitvadhi U.,Kasetsart University | Kovitvadhi S.,Bansomdejchaopraya Rajabhat University | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The effects of four modified diets (gamma-irradiated, microwave-irradiated, probiotic-supplemented and carbohydrase-supplemented diets) were studied on digestive enzyme specific activities and growth performance quality of juvenile Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910) during 2. weeks of critical and intensive rearing period. The modified procedures did not change biochemical compositions and gross energy of diets, but generally resulted in relatively higher in vitro digestibilities of protein and carbohydrate and fish survival rate, albeit insignificant. Only gamma irradiation significantly increased in vitro protein digestibility of the diet, and microwave irradiation increased starch gelatinization and water solubility (P< 0.05). Fish fed microwave-treated diet showed highest values in all studied growth indicators and digestive enzyme specific activities (except lipase), with significantly higher amylase specific activity and activity ratio of amylase to trypsin (A/T ratio). Correlation analysis indicated significant relationships (P< 0.05) among the levels of total protease, amylase and trypsin, and between SGR and A/T ratio. Muscle and body compositions of juveniles fed on microwave- or gamma-irradiated diets were similar to the control, while the juveniles fed on probiotic- or carbohydrase-supplemented diets showed lower protein depositions (P< 0.05). Similar levels of RNA, RNA/Protein ratio, and Protein/Lipid ratio in body and muscle in all dietary groups fed ad libitum suggested that the improved growth performance in juvenile Siamese fighting fish fed on microwave-irradiated diet may not be only due to improved physicochemical properties of the diet but also improved fish consumption rate. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Koolboon U.,Kasetsart University | Koonawootrittriron S.,Kasetsart University | Kamolrat W.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Na-Nakorn U.,Kasetsart University
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

The hybrid between Clarias macrocephalus female × C. gariepinus male has been cultured in Thailand for more than 20. years, but the effects of parental strains have not been studied. In the present study, differences among three strains each of C. macrocephalus and C. gariepinus were shown by the analyses of five microsatellite loci (FST= 0.174 ± 0.037). Pairwise FST within species was significantly higher than zero (P= 0.0000) for every population pair, and ranged from 0.027 to 0.041 for C. macrocephalus and from 0.087 to 0.254 for C. gariepinus. Interspecific hybridization was performed using females from C. macrocephalus and male C. gariepinus, resulting in nine hybrid crosses. Performance traits of the hybrids were compared with the offspring of three crosses each within C. macrocephalus and C. gariepinus. The experiments were done in tanks from 28 to 84. days old, and in cages fixed in an earthen pond from 85 to 175. days old. The results showed that the effects of both parental strains and their interaction on the absolute growth rate and specific growth rate (SGR) from 28 to 84. days old were significant. Absolute growth rates during 85 to 175. days were significantly affected only by strains of C. gariepinus, while neither parental strains affected SGR from 85 to 175. days old of the hybrids. The effects of the parental strains and their interaction were not significant for other traits, including the survival rate from 28 to 84. days old and 85 to 175. days old, dress-out percentage, fillet yield, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index. It was noteworthy that the difference in traits among crosses within each genetic group (C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus, and hybrids) was significant only for growth traits (absolute growth rates from 28 to 84. days and from 84 to 175. days among strains of C. gariepinus, and among hybrids; the SGR from 28 to 84. days old and 85 to 175. days old within C. macrocephalus, and the SGR from 28 to 84. days old within the hybrids). Mean heterosis was low and not notable (< 1%) in most cases, except for the survival rate from 28 to 84. days old and 85 to 175. days old (+ 2.43 ± 2.14 and + 10.71 ± 4.71%, respectively), absolute growth rate from 85 to 175. days (+ 10.85 ± 11.35%), and percent fillet yield (+ 1.34 ± 1.73%). Variation of heterosis among the hybrid crosses was observed. Among the nine hybrid crosses, the cross between female C. macrocephalus from Udorn Thani province (Cma-UD) × C. gariepinus from the Department of Aquaculture (Cga-AQ) showed the highest proportion of positive heterosis across ten traits (90%). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wangwibulkit M.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Vajrodaya S.,Kasetsart University
Agriculture and Natural Resources | Year: 2016

Pogostemon helferi (Hook. f.) Press, locally known as “dao-noi” is a rare Thai indigenous aquatic plant that is popular for use in aquaria and water gardens. To address its scarcity and to make the plant more readily available, two experiments were conducted to find the optimum conditions for ex-situ propagation. The first experiment aimed to determine the concentration of growth regulators for its micropropagation. Sterile explants were cultured using a combination of 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) supplements in Murashige and Skoog media (MS). MS media containing IAA 0.1 mg/L and BA 3 mg/L induced the highest percentage of callus formation (93.33%). In addition, MS media with IAA added at 0.3 mg/L significantly (p < 0.05) increased the number of new shoots appearing and their length after 8 wk. The second experiment aimed to determine the optimum electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and the humidity level for P. helferi growth within a hydroponics system. The results showed that an electrical conductivity of 1.6 mS/cm and 80% humidity were optimal for P. helferi growth and production to a marketable size. These methods should enable the production of P. helferi appropriate to support market demand and thus can reduce the current practice of harvesting wild plants in their natural habitat. © 2016

Pannusa S.,Kasetsart University | Poompuang S.,Kasetsart University | Kamonrat W.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2015

Microsatellite loci and truss morphometrics were used to discriminate eight hatchery stocks of silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus) in Northeast Thailand. The results showed significant genetic (P < 0.0017) and morphological differences (P < 0.0017) in 18 and 25 out of 28 pair-wise comparisons, respectively. However, cluster analyses revealed a weak association between genetic differentiation and morphometric variation. Principal components analysis identified three truss measurements in the abdominal regions as the most powerful variables to distinguish stocks. Discriminant function analysis, based on 13 truss elements, assigned individuals to four distinct groups, and one group consisted of samples from four stocks. Among distinct stocks that showed variation in body shape, the Buri Ram samples displayed the largest body size as a result of breeding selection. The identity of a stock could be constructed from three measurements for body shape that were significantly correlated. Findings demonstrated the use of the truss morphometric approach in discriminating different hatchery stocks of silver barb within the studied stations. © 2015, Kasetsart University. All rights reserved.

Sukmanomon S.,Kasetsart University | Kamonrat W.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Poompuang S.,Kasetsart University | Nguyen T.T.T.,Deakin University | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Fourteen microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic changes of four strains in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) derived from genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) and two strains derived from a local Chitralada strain of Nile tilapia in Thailand. Reference populations, including the ninth generation of GIFT strain, the original Chitralada strain, two conspecific reference populations from Ivory Coast and Uganda, and one population each of Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis aureus, were also examined. Despite minor genetic changes, three of the four GIFT-derived populations retained their purity as GIFT while genetic variation did not decline. One of the GIFT-derived populations showed high levels of introgression from the Chitralada strain. Likewise, introgression from GIFT to the Chitralada-derived populations was seen. Inter-specific introgression from O. mossambicus was observed in the GIFT reference population and one of the Chitralada-derived strains. Introgression from O. aureus was detected in one of the GIFT-derived populations with a history of intensive inter-strain crossing. However, the introgression resulted in elevated genetic variation relative to the Chitralada original strains. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Munpholsri N.,Kasetsart University | Poompuang S.,Kasetsart University | Senanan W.,Burapha University | Kamonrat W.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2013

The Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) fishery in Thailand has experienced declining catches during the past several years and was identified as over-exploited. The study obtained population genetic information to support the ongoing management of the fishery. Six microsatellite loci from short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma) were screened to assess the genetic diversity in Indian mackerel stocks from four localities on the Andaman Sea coast. All population samples exhibited similar and moderate genetic variation with an average of 6.5 to 7.8 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity at all loci of 0.60 to 0.69. There was no evidence to support population substructure (overall genetic differentiation = FST = 0.012; non-significant pairwise FST values). Gene flow was detected through the presence of rare alleles at three loci across samples. The contemporary estimated effective population size was approximately 330 if a single stock unit was considered. This moderate size of the breeding population is crucial for the short-term conservation of genetic variability in Indian mackerel stocks. Genetic data from the present study provides baseline genetic information and supports the management of Indian mackerel as a single unit.

Poompoung P.,Kasetsart University | Poompuang S.,Kasetsart University | Kamonrat W.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2012

This study aimed to determine the possibility of using temperature manipulation to stimulate ovarian activities of Clarias macrocephalus during the post-spawning season. The ovarian development and monthly change in the gonado-somatic index (GSI) of females held under pond conditions was monitored over a 1 yr period from April 2008 to March 2009. In October, 13 mth-old female fish (weight ± SD= 108 ± 12.7 g) were randomly collected from an earthen pond and exposed to different temperatures at 25, 30 and 35 °C under hatchery conditions for 6 wk. The results indicated that the change in the GSI appeared to be correlated with the amount of rainfall, but not to the variation in seasonal temperature. A significant (P < 0.05) variation of mean GSI values was observed among months with the highest value ± SE (13.91 ± 3.63%) in July. Histological examination of ovaries revealed that in females held under 25, 30 and 35 °C, the number of vitellogenic oocytes progressively increased from 0.5-4.7% at week 2 to 4.6-19.7% at week 6, whereas in females held in the earthen pond, ovaries contained only immature oocytes. Exposure to warm temperatures resulted in significant elevations of plasma cortisol but not glucose concentrations. Although fully matured females could not be obtained, the present study suggested that temperature manipulation was probably the practical way to increase the number of maturing females during the off reproductive season for walking catfish.

Jutagate T.,Ubon Ratchathani University | Srichareondham B.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Lek S.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Amarasinghe U.S.,University of Kelaniya
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2012

Temporal variations of fish yields in four major reservoirs in Thailand (Ubolratana; Sirindhorn; Srinakarin; Vajiralongkorn) were investigated with the use of long-term fish landing data (≥20years). The long-term variations in fish yield, measured as the coefficient of variation of yearly yield, ranged mostly between 50% and 100%. For short-term variations, the means of the relative variation (85%) were larger than the absolute variation (63%). This finding indicates that short-term variations were inversely related to fish yield and that a higher uncertainty occurs when fish catches are low. The stocked exotic species exhibited higher variations than the indigenous species. The trend analyses indicated some species had sharply declined fish landings, while some species were quite stable (i.e. reservoir-adapted species). Stocked species tended to increase in relatively shallow reservoirs, compared to the deep reservoir. Fish landing data for each reservoir were patternized, using the self-organizing map, indicating temporal trends of chronological order. The differences among clusters in each reservoir were with respect to the weight of each species in the fish landings in each year, and temporal changes in species composition in the reservoirs, which would primarily be attributed to the environmental changes followed by anthropogenic pressures. The mean trophic level (τ) fluctuated, resulting from changes in species composition and weight of fish landing, as well as fish stocking programmes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Deein G.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Tangjitjaroen W.,Chiang Mai University | Page L.M.,University of Florida
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. How-ever, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may ac-count for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Phomikong P.,Ubon Ratchathani University | Fukushima M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Sricharoendham B.,Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Nohara S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Jutagate T.,Ubon Ratchathani University
River Research and Applications | Year: 2015

Diversity and community structure of fishes were studied in three neighbouring tributaries of the Mekong River in Thailand, namely the Mun, Songkhram and Gam Rivers. The rivers are located in the same ecoregion but have contrasting levels of both hydrological regulations and mitigation measures; the Mun River has a hydropower dam with a fish ladder and sluice gates that are opened during the wet season each year, the Gam River has several irrigation dams with a fish ladder at each dam site, and the Songkhram River has no dams along its river course. A total of 124 freshwater fish species were sampled in these rivers from August 2009 to June 2010. Overall species richness was highest in the Songkhram River (112), followed by the Mun (97) and Gam (54) Rivers. Average per site species richness was also significantly different among rivers but not among sampling months. Abundance-biomass comparison plots revealed considerably overlapping distributions of these two metrics from the dry to early rainy seasons in the Songkhram River and, to a lesser extent, in the Mun River. Fish assemblage data were classified into six clusters with similar community structure. Fish assemblages in the Gam River constituted a single cluster, while those in the other two rivers formed multiple clusters depending on the sampling season. The results of the cluster analysis are discussed in relation to the dominance of the three migration guilds (white, black, and grey fishes) of the Mekong River fishes. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures was determined to be limited in alleviating adverse impacts of dams in these tributaries of the Mekong River. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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