Variability in content and type of anthocyanins in blue/purple colored grains of mexican maize populations [Variabilidad en contenido y tipos de antocianinas en granos de color azul/morado de poblaciones mexicanas de maíz]
Moreno Y.S.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares |
Salinas C.G.,Monterrey Institute of Technology |
Vidal Martinez V.A.,Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla INIFAP
Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana | Year: 2013
This work analyzes current information on the content and characterization of anthocyanins from maize (Zea mays L.) grains, focusing on studies related to Mexican maize races. Anthocyanin content and type vary depending on color and location of the pigment in the grain structures. Magenta colored maize grains concentrate anthocyanins in the pericarp and the aleurone layer; blue/purple maize grain concentrate pigments only in the aleurone layer. Anthocyanin content in magenta grains is up to 10 fold richer than blue/purple grains. Chromatographic anthocyanin profiles of magenta grain show the presence of 9 to 11 anthocyanins derivatives from cyanidin (73.3 to 75.7 %), pelargonidin (8.3 to 9.3 %) and peonidin (16.0 to 17.5 %). Blue/purple maize grain analysis shows similar profiles to magenta grain, with a marked presence of mono acylated derivatives of cyanidin. Most published information on anthocyanin characterization in maize grains originates from Andean purple or magenta grains, which are mainly used for pigment extraction. Only few studies on anthocyanin content use Mexican blue or blue/purple maize grains, and even fewer show their anthocyanin profile. Blue/purple maize grains are preferably employed in Mexico for preparation of diverse traditional dishes, thus it is appropriate to encourage studies that deeply explore variability in anthocyanin content and type in these maize grains.