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Aguascalientes, Mexico

Smith D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Smith D.R.,Smithsonian Institution | Snchez-Martnez G.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Ordaz-Silva S.,Comite Estatal de Sanidad Vegetal de SLP
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington | Year: 2010

Monoctenus sanchezi Smith, n. sp., is described. It was found damaging Juniperus flaccida Schlechtendal (Cupressaceae) in San Luis Potos, Mexico. This is the second Mexican species of the genus. A review of Monoctenus from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America is presented, with M. sadadus Smith a new country record for the United States and new records of the genus for Utah and as far south as Guatemala. Source

Padilla-Ramirez J.S.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Cortes-Penagos C.J.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo | Maldonado-Sierra N.E.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo | Sanchez-Rico T.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Guava fruit is appreciated for its high vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) content with respect to other fruits. Approximately 85-90% of the total guava production in Mexico is consumed as fresh fruit, while the rest is destined to the industry where the total soluble solids (°Brix) content is important. In the present study, the AA and °Brix content of five guava genotypes were determined. Guava trees were fertilized during the crop cycle of 2010-2011 using two different application methods: 1) soil fertilized and 2) fertilized through the drip irrigation system (fertigated). However, both fertilization treatments administered the same NP- K dosage. Variations in the concentration of AA and total soluble solids among guava genotypes and fertilization treatments were compared. Fruits were obtained from the guava selections grown at the Experimental Station of "Los Cañones" located in the municipality of Huanusco, Zacatecas, Mexico. Guava fruit samples were taken to the laboratory for processing in triplicate. Data were analyzed in a factorial arrangement. Fertilization treatments did not show significant effect on AA content. However, four guava genotypes showed slightly higher ascorbic acid content with the fertigated treatment when compared to the soil fertilized treatment; only one of the guava genotypes had the opposite response. The data from both fertilization treatments gave AA content values within a range of 216 to 534 mg AA/100 g of fruit. °Brix content of fruit was higher for the soil fertilized treatment than the fertigated treatment with overall values ranging from 11.5 to 20.5. These results are in agreement with other values reported previously for guava fruit in the region of study. © ISHS. Source

Padilla-Ramirez J.S.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Gonzalez-Gaona E.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Ambriz-Aguilar J.,Comite Nacional Del Sistema Producto Guayaba A.C.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Guava is one of the most important fruit crops in Mexico. During the last decade average cultivated area has been about 22.8 thousands hectares with an annual production of 291 thousands tons. National mean of guava fruit yield is 13.7 t ha-1, however, it may fluctuate from 2 to 20 t ha -1, depending on the region and between levels of technology used. Approximately 85% of the total production volume is for fresh consumption, while the rest is used for processing at different scales. Most of the commercialization of fresh guava is for the national market and is mainly concentrated in five or six Mexican cities. Nevertheless, those cities represent a potential market of more than 40 millions people. Although guava is produced in more than 20 states of the country, planted area in the states of Michoacan, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas represent an 89% of the total cultivated area. The guava fruit type mainly produced in these regions is called 'Media China', which has a high preference by the consumer because of its nice flavor and pleasant aroma. Recently, guava crop has received more attention by the different stakeholders in the value chain, which allowed reaching important objectives such as the exportation of 15 thousands tons of fresh guava to the United States during the last four years. This was possible because of the campaigns against fruit fly, as well as the approved irradiation treatment. Another important achievement includes the registration and release of the first five Mexican guava cultivars. Even then, some challenges that guava producers in Mexico have to face in the near future are: development and use of more improved cultivars having comparative advantages (fruit size and form, lower seed number, pulp color, ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids, greater firmness, etc.); adoption of better agronomic practices (pruning, nutrition, irrigation, etc.); more environmentally and healthy control of pests; regulation of cropping to ensure more stable production through the whole year and increase fruit quality and uniformity, among others. Besides these technical factors, it is also needed: to enhance organization of guava producers; increase infrastructure (packing and cold storage facilities, etc.); to have more access to technical assistance and better profits for guavas. As long as some of these elements start to be incorporated to the guava production systems, it could be possible to have better perspectives for the future of the Mexican guava. © ISHS. Source

Padilla-Ramirez J.S.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Gonzalez-Gaona E.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Perez-Barraza M.H.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Santiago | Osuna-Garcia J.A.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Santiago | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit crop in Mexico. There are around 23 thousand hectares producing 300 thousand tons per year. Given the topographic conditions under which guava trees are grown, it is possible to find guava orchards in a wide altitudinal range. Altitude has an important influence on their phenological behavior, mainly due to temperature differences. The objective of the present work was to study the phenological development of guava trees and their relationships with ambient temperature at three locations of Mexico having different climatic conditions. The present study was carried out during the growth cycle of 2011. Guava trees were established previously at the following locations: 1) Santiago, Ixcuintla, Nayarit (hot-sub humid); 2) Huanusco, Zacatecas (semi hot-semi dry) and 3) Temascaltepec, Mexico (temperate to semi cool-sub humid). Annual mean temperature fluctuates from 25 to 18°C at the hottest and coolest sites, respectively. Phenological development of guava trees was greatly influenced by temperature conditions (elevation) at each location. Duration from pruning to flowering (P-F) ranged from 60 to 115 days, whereas the period from flowering to beginning of harvest (F-BH) varied from 100 to 180 days at Santiago Ixcuintla and Temascaltepec, respectively. Phenology of guava trees at Huanusco was intermediate between the other two locations. Although a great variation on the number of days for the phenological development among locations was observed, accumulated heat units were similar for all sites. Guava trees require about 800 to 850 and from 1,950 to 2,000 heat units for stages P-F and F-BH, respectively. Heat units were calculated using the residual method with a threshold temperature of 9.0°C. Thus, phenological development of guava could be predicted more accurately using heat units accumulation rather than counting calendar days. © ISHS. Source

Rodriguez-Moreno V.M.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon | Padilla-Ramirez J.S.,INIFAP Campo Experimental Pabellon
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The management system which is based on handling GIS database files and remotely sensed imageries on Geographical Information System (GIS) environment is an essential tool to guide and regulate the production systems and marketing activities of product chains. In the case of guava, the management system has to be fed with a specific and structured field database and its metadata to verify the phenotypic status of guava trees and to characterize the production system applied by the producer in agronomic terms (coordinate data, planting frame, vigor, health etc). This data is useful to determine agronomic conditions to be incorporated as a field test in a supervised classification process on SPOT satellite images (PAN and MS) which is used as a mean to scale the punctual field observation data. As a numerical value, the raster structure of satellite images and the numeric value for each cell represents guava photosynthetic activity rate. Along with this, the isolation of guava's phenotypic signature in DN units will feed the supervised classification procedure allowing the user to generate thematic maps per class. On GIS environment, a multi-assessment analysis is applied in order to assign a weight to each component on the project. The analysis is based on spatial analysis vicinity functions applied to guava orchard locations, proximity to collecting centers, roads, and highways. The visual immediacy on thematic maps will allow the decision makers to implement their own criteria analysis to plan the market destination of guava production volume weeks after harvest (fresh market or industry) in Calvillo County. Source

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