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Clemente L.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research | Correia I.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research | Themudo P.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research | Neto I.,University of Lisbon | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

Three hundred and thirty-three isolates representing 40 different serotypes of Salmonella enterica, recovered from environmental and faecal samples of breeder and broiler flocks from 2009 to 2011, were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration of 11 antimicrobials using the agar dilution method. Salmonella Havana S. Enteritidis and S. Mbandaka were the most common serotypes isolated from broiler flocks, while S. Enteritidis was the common isolate from breeder flocks. The frequency of non-wild-type Salmonella isolates (those with decreased susceptibility to the different antimicrobials) varied according to serotype.S. Mbandaka in broilers and S. Enteritidis in both breeders and broilers showed higher frequencies of reduced susceptibility to quinolones, but clinical resistance towards ciprofloxacin was not observed. Reduced susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycin were common in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Two isolates of S. Havana from broilers were resistant to cefotaxime and phenotypically categorised as extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. The results presented in this study provide useful data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of different Salmonella serotypes and highlight the high diversity of multi-drug resistance patterns present. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Clemente L.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research | Manageiro V.,National Institute Of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge | Manageiro V.,University of Porto | Jones-Dias D.,National Institute Of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge | And 11 more authors.
Research in Microbiology

The impact of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (PMAβs) of animal origin has been a public health concern. In this study, 562 Salmonella enterica and 598 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from different animal species and food products were tested for antimicrobial resistance. Detection of ESBL-, PMAβ-, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)-encoding genes and integrons was performed in isolates showing non-wild-type phenotypes.Susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. isolates differed according to serotype and origin of the isolates. The occurrence of cefotaxime non-wild-type isolates was higher in pets than in other groups. In nine Salmonella isolates, blaCTX-M (n = 4), blaSHV-12 (n = 1), blaTEM-1 (n = 2) and blaCMY-2 (n = 2) were identified. No PMQR-encoding genes were found. In 47 E. coli isolates, blaCTX-M (n = 15), blaSHV-12 (n = 2), blaCMY-2 (n = 6), blaTEM-type (n = 28) and PMQR-encoding genes qnrB (n = 2), qnrS (n = 1) and aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 6) were detected. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the presence of blaCMY-2 (n = 2) and blaSHV-12 (n = 1) genes among S. enterica from broilers in Portugal.This study highlights the fact that animals may act as important reservoirs of isolates carrying ESBL-, PMAβ- and PMQR-encoding genes that might be transferred to humans through direct contact or via the food chain. © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Source

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