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Costa R.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Pinheiro N.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Almeida A.S.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Gomes C.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | And 4 more authors.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Yield and test weight are attributes of particular economic importance in wheat production systems and are strongly affected by environmental conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of sowing date and seeding rate on grain yield and test weight of fifteen bread wheat varieties and five advanced lines from Portuguese Wheat Breeding Program (Plant Breeding Station, Elvas, Portugal) under irrigated Mediterranean systems. Field experiments were conducted at two locations of Southeast Portugal, during 2011/2012 growing season. Two seeding rates were compared (200 and 350 seeds.m-2) in two different sowing dates in each location. Results showed that sowing date and seeding rate affects yield and test weight under irrigation field conditions, for Mediterranean region of Southeast Portugal, but only sowing date had significant effects among the varieties. At Elvas, higher yield was obtained with the 2nd sowing date (21 December) for most of the varieties studied. In opposite, in Beja trials, the highest values for yield were found when varieties were sown earlier (1st sowing date - 26 October). Test weight had a similar performance in the two sites, though top values for this trait were found with the 1st sowing date. Comparing the results obtained in the two studied locations, Beja showed, for the majority of the varieties, 3t/ha higher average yield than Elvas.


Pinheiro N.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Costa R.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Almeida A.S.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Coutinho J.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | And 2 more authors.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Two durum wheat trials were carried out in Mediterranean conditions during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 growing seasons at Plant Breeding Station-Elvas (Portugal). The experiments were conducted under rainfed conditions however, in 2012, due to extreme drought it was necessary to use artificial irrigation between booting and mid grain filling stage. Thirty durum wheat genotypes were studied and six quality parameters were evaluated: thousand kernel weight (TKW), test weight, vitreousness, protein content, SDS test and pigment content through Minolta CR 300 Colorimeter (L*a*b) analysis. ANOVA showed that all sources of variation for four quality traits were highly significant (P < 0.001) for both years, except for SDS volume and index b* that were not significant during the two years of trials. Environmental effects showed that total water input during grain filling, appears to affect negatively grain quality by reducing test weight, TKW and semolina yield. Maximum temperatures during the same period reduced test weight, TKW, semolina yield and pigment content (L*), but increased protein content. A negative correlation was found between protein content and test weight and a positive correlation between test weight and semolina yield. Technological trait associated with pasta quality pigment index (b*) was significant different among the genotypes.


Bagulho A.S.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Costa R.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Almeida A.S.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | Pinheiro N.,INIAV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research | And 6 more authors.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Grain quality is an essential component in wheat breeding programs since influences the commercial value of wheat. This study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype, season and sowing date on quality parameters of seventeen bread wheat commercial varieties and three advanced lines from Portuguese Wheat Breeding Program (Plant Breeding Station, Elvas, Portugal) under irrigated Mediterranean systems. Field experiments were conducted at two locations of Southeast Portugal (Elvas and Beja), during two growing seasons. At Elvas, results showed that environment (season) had highest contribution on variation of quality traits. At Beja experiments, the level of environment (season) influence decreased in relation to Elvas experiments: season was the most important factor to explain the variation of protein content and test weight, but for alveograph parameters (W and P/L ratio) it was found that genotype had higher influence. Sowing date was ever the most important factor to explain thousand kernel weight. The results confirmed that genetic potential is crucial to obtain high quality wheat but it is necessary a good environment to promote its expression.

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