Bolivar, Ecuador
Bolivar, Ecuador

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Leroy T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | De Bellis F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Legnate H.,British Petroleum | Musoli P.,COREC | And 4 more authors.
Genetica | Year: 2014

The management of diversity for conservation and breeding is of great importance for all plant species and is particularly true in perennial species, such as the coffee Coffea canephora. This species exhibits a large genetic and phenotypic diversity with six different diversity groups. Large field collections are available in the Ivory Coast, Uganda and other Asian, American and African countries but are very expensive and time consuming to establish and maintain in large areas. We propose to improve coffee germplasm management through the construction of genetic core collections derived from a set of 565 accessions that are characterized with 13 microsatellite markers. Core collections of 12, 24 and 48 accessions were defined using two methods aimed to maximize the allelic diversity (Maximization strategy) or genetic distance (Maximum-Length Sub-Tree method). A composite core collection of 77 accessions is proposed for both objectives of an optimal management of diversity and breeding. This core collection presents a gene diversity value of 0.8 and exhibits the totality of the major alleles (i.e., 184) that are present in the initial set. The seven proposed core collections constitute a valuable tool for diversity management and a foundation for breeding programs. The use of these collections for collection management in research centers and breeding perspectives for coffee improvement are discussed. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Monar C.,State University of Bolívar, Guaranda | Saavedra A.K.,PROINPA | Escudero L.,INIAP | Delgado J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation | Year: 2013

The USAID, SANREM, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcas- ing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a, 2010b, 2012). This project has strong international cooperation between the United States, Ecuador, and Bolivia. The project has contributed to the implementation of conservation on the ground in the Andean region of South America, based on strong partnership with local institutions, universities, and farmers. Farmers have been a key component of this success by allowing the implementation of demonstration projects on their farms under local commercial farming operations. Personal visits with farmers revealed that these types of projects can contribute to the training of additional local farmers, with field days that show the benefits of these studies. These newly implemented conservation practices are helping reduce the risk of erosion and potentially increasing economic returns for the farmers as well as promoting sustainability of local systems. With the challenges we will be up against in the twenty-first century, such as climate change and growth of the human population, soil sustainability will be key in efforts to achieve food security and soil and water conservation across all global sites. This USAID project serves as an example of positive impacts in sustainability at the farmer level (Barrera et al. 2010b).


Paz-Carrasco L.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Castillo-Urquiza G.P.,Federal University of Viçosa | Lima A.T.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | Xavier C.A.D.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

Viral diseases caused by begomoviruses are of economic importance due to their adverse effects on the production of tropical and subtropical crops. In Ecuador, despite reports of significant infestations of Bemisia tabaci in the late 1990s, only very recently has a begomovirus, tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV, also present in Peru), been reported in tomato. ToLDeV is the first monopartite begomovirus discovered that originated in the Americas, and its presence in Ecuador highlights the need for a wider survey of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in this country. Tomato and weed samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 in six provinces of Ecuador, and begomovirus genomes were cloned and sequenced using a rolling-circle-amplification-based approach. Most tomato samples from the provinces of Guayas, Loja, Manabi and Santa Elena were infected with tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). One sample from Manabi had a triple infection with ToLDeV, rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus (RhGMYuV) and an isolate that was a recombinant between the two. A new begomovirus was detected in another tomato sample from Manabi. Samples of Rhynchosia sp. from the provinces of Guayas and Manabi were infected by RhGMYuV. These results indicate not only the prevalence of ToLDeV in tomato in Ecuador but also the presence of other viruses, albeit at a much lower frequency. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Navarrete B.,INIAP | McAuslane H.,University of Florida | Deyrup M.,Archbold Biological Station | Pena J.E.,University of Florida
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2013

After the arrival of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida, several studies mentioned the presence of ants where D. citri was present, but there was no clarification of their specific interaction with the psyllid. The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of ants in the biological control of D. citri by observing ant behavior and by determining if ant presence, modified by exclusion manipulations, affected parasitism of D. citri by Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an introduced parasitoid of the psyllid, when the insect was infesting orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (Sapindales: Rutaceae) and Persian lime, Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Sapindales: Rutaceae). During a preliminary survey on M. paniculata in Homestead, Florida, we observed 2 ant species in association with D. citri, i.e., the big headed ant, Pheidole megacephala Fabricius, and the rover ant, Brachymyrmex obscurior Forel. In 2 ant exclusion experiments, using a 2-cm-wide barrier of Tanglefoot®, P. megacephala was the only ant species found in M. paniculata while P. megacephala, B. patagonicus and Solenopsis invicta Buren were observed in C. latifolia. The number of P. megacephala found in the unprotected flushes in M. paniculata fluctuated between 0.15 and 0.5 per flush while in C. latifolia the number of ants, pooled across species, varied between 1.44 and 6.61. In M. paniculata flushes from Tanglefoot-treated plants, 20.36% of the nymphs were parasitized by T. radiata compared to 0.39% parasitism in untreated control flushes where ants had not been excluded. Fifty-eight percent of the psyllid nymphs were parasitized in the C. latifolia Tanglefoot® ant-exclusion flushes compared with 8.57% parasitism in the non-exclusion control. An additional experiment using the ant bait Extinguish Plus® (Hydramethylnon 0.365%+ S-Methoprene 0.250%) applied to the soil surrounding the trunk showed that the use of a granular bait can help to reduce ant populations and consequently increase the percentage parasitism of the Asian citrus psyllid.


Rivano F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Mattos C.R.R.,Michelin | Cardoso S.E.A.,Michelin | Martinez M.,Technical State University of Quevedo | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The CIRAD-Michelin-Brazil (CMB) breeding program was set up in 1992 and has produced several genotypes as alternative varieties for growing in suboptimal regions and areas affected by South American Leaf Blight (SALB). From a large parent population of more than 113 clones, the program developed CMB genotypes evaluated in large-scale clone trials. Based on accurate knowledge of the parents' agronomic potential, the CMB breeding program combined family and individual selection in the seedling evaluation trials. The segregation ratios of the SALB resistance traits in the progeny were used to identify and reject parents whose resistance was determined by a small number of genes, easily overcome by Microcyclus ulei strains. After evaluating the germplasm, 13 genotypes were selected for evaluation of their resistance, girth and rubber production in a trial network covering eight sites in Brazil and Ecuador. There were significant differences between clones, sites and clone-site interactions. The resistance of the clones to SALB was confirmed for all sites, both for conidial and sexual fungal stages. The growth rate in Ecuador was always higher than in Brazil with the exception of one clone. Data from previous years of production for a few clones was used to estimate the potential yield of these clones compared to clones usually planted in Latin America. Simultaneous selection for SALB resistance, yield and growth resulted in promising genotypes which need to be tested in areas with different environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Barrera V.,INIAP Estacion Experimental Santa Catalina | Cruz E.,INIAP Estacion Experimental Santa Catalina | Alwang J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Escudero L.,INIAP | Monar C.,INIAP
ASABE - 21st Century Watershed Technology: Improving Water Quality and Environment 2010 | Year: 2010

As is typical of many rural areas in developing countries, the Andean region of Ecuador is characterized by extreme poverty, owing to low agricultural productivity, limited human skills in business management and implementation of production technologies as well as lack of access to product, input, and capital markets. Compounding the situation, high poverty indices occur together with the degradation of natural resources, infant malnutrition, social inequity, and a downward development spiral. Communities in these areas produce various food crops, however, these production activities degrade soil and water resources and contribute to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. This article summarizes and describes a process of adaptive watershed management which contributes to sustainable development in the Chimbo River sub-watershed. The process begins with technical studies of the state of soil resources, water, and biodiversity in the sub-watershed with the intent of designing a plan to modify production systems by incorporating more environmentally friendly practices. Challenges for watershed management are described. The conceptual framework, empirical strategy, and final results are presented which show how implementation of better practices for natural resource management and food production contribute to reducing environmental vulnerability and improvement in the welfare of local farm families in the watershed.


Rivano F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vera J.,INIAP | Cevallos V.,INIAP | Almeida D.,INIAP | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) growing in Latin America is severely limited by South American Leaf Blight, a disease caused by the Ascomycete fungus Microcyclus ulei, recently renamed Pseudocercospora ulei. Sustainable ways of controlling it may be genetic, using resistant cultivars, or may consist in seeking so-called “escape zones”, where disease incidence is low thanks to climatic conditions unsuitable for the fungus. After identifying one such zone on the Pacific coast of Ecuador, between 2006 and 2014 we used an 8.2 ha trial to compare the agronomic performance of ten rubber clones originating from Asia and Africa. The study focused on tree growth, susceptibility to the disease and clone phenology. For most of the assessed clones, the results obtained over 8 months showed good adaptability and a good agronomic performance during the immature period, so that tapping could begin on the earliest trees at 6½ years. An examination of the monthly values for climatic factors such as rainfall, relative humidity, minimum temperature and dew point temperature, showed that conditions during the dry season, which lasted 5 months, were detrimental to P. ulei fungus development, even though the mean relative humidity of the driest months did not fall below 75%. In addition, between September and December, the minimum temperature remained above the dew point temperature, preventing dew formation on the leaf surface. These conditions enabled the trees to complete their natural refoliation without any risk of parasite pressure, and to conserve a foliar density over 90% up to natural defoliation the following year. The results obtained during the early growing phase, i.e. the immature phase, confirmed the suitability of this zone for rubber growing, especially for materials with a high yield potential, despite their known susceptibility to the disease. These escape zones consequently offer an undeniable alternative for developing rubber, due to a low phytosanitary risk arising from P. ulei. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Rivano F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Martinez M.,INIAP | Cevallos V.,INIAP | Cilas C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Resistance of rubber tree clones to South American Leaf Blight (SALB) caused by the fungus Microcyclus ulei is normally assessed in specific large-scale clone trials, which in general entail a considerable amount of work. Four variables are observed monthly on each tree over many years: disease severity and conidial sporulation intensity on young leaves, and severity and stroma density on mature leaves. In order to simplify this field assessment method, we tested the resistance of eight rubber tree clones to M. ulei in Ecuador in a Fisher block design with four replicates per treatment. Three months after planting, monthly observations were made for a period of 12 months on the foliage focusing on the four variables, in order to quantify disease development. Given the correlations between the four variables, assessment of conidial sporulation intensity on young leaves and stroma density on mature leaves should be sufficient. The most suitable period to start the assessment was 6 months after planting, for a duration of six to nine months. As repeated observations on the same trees were autocorrelated, it was possible to reduce the assessment frequency to once every 2 months. To conclude, assessing the resistance of rubber tree clones to SALB in large-scale clone trials can be optimized to reduce the number of observation times by 50%. © KNPV 2009.


Hue C.,Valrhona SA | Brat P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Gunata Z.,Montpellier University | Samaniego I.,INIAP | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R2 = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Rivano F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Maldonado L.,INIAP | Simbana B.,MAGAP DIGDM | Lucero R.,MAGAP DIGDM | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Rubber growing (. Hevea brasiliensis) is showing real development in Latin America, where the production of natural rubber is still held back by the incidence of the South American leaf disease caused by a fungus, Microcyclus ulei, recently renamed Pseudocercospora ulei, which causes repeated defoliation of trees. The solutions are genetic in order to grow varieties resistant to the disease, or developing new plantations in areas where disease incidence is less severe and does not present a serious risk due to adverse climatic conditions for the fungus. The aim of this study was to identify areas in Ecuador for their climatic characteristics suitable for rubber growing, and also the zones that are unsuited to the fungus P. ulei, in order to allow the establishment of rubber plantations with less phytosanitary risk. A geographic study was thus carried out at national level based on the biophysical basis of existing data, by selecting the most relevant parameters with their appropriate ranges for rubber cultivation. Different maps were obtained, displaying 749,824. ha suitable for cultivation, of which 80,174. ha are in escape areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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