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Garcia-Valtanen P.,University Miguel Hernández | Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan M.,University Miguel Hernández | Martinez-Lopez A.,University Miguel Hernández | Medina-Gali R.,Labiofam | And 5 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2014

It has not been elucidated whether or not autophagy is induced by rhabdoviral G glycoproteins (G) in vertebrate organisms for which rhabdovirus infection is lethal. Our work provides the first evidence that both mammalian (vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV) and fish (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV, and spring viremia carp virus, SVCV) rhabdoviral Gs induce an autophagic antiviral program in vertebrate cell lines. The transcriptomic profiles obtained from zebrafish genetically immunized with either Gsvcv or Gvhsv suggest that autophagy is induced shortly after immunization and therefore, it may be an important component of the strong antiviral immune responses elicited by these viral proteins. Pepscan mapping of autophagy-inducing linear determinants of Gvhsv and Gvsv showed that peptides located in their fusion domains induce autophagy. Altogether these results suggest that strategies aimed at modulating autophagy could be used for the prevention and treatment of rhabdoviral infections such as rabies, which causes thousands of human deaths every year. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.


Martinez-Lopez A.,University Miguel Hernández | Garcia-Valtanen P.,University Miguel Hernández | Ortega-Villaizan M.d.M.,University Miguel Hernández | Chico V.,University Miguel Hernández | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The route of administration of DNA vaccines can play a key role in the magnitude and quality of the immune response triggered after their administration. DNA vaccines containing the gene of the membrane-anchored glycoprotein (gpG) of the fish rhabdoviruses infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or viral haematopoietic septicaemia virus (VHSV), perhaps the most effective DNA vaccines generated so far, confer maximum protection when injected intramuscularly in contrast to their low efficacy when injected intraperitoneally. In this work, taking as a model the DNA vaccine against VHSV, we focused on developing a more versatile DNA vaccine capable of inducing protective immunity regardless of the administration route used. For that, we designed two alternative constructs to gpG1-507 (the wild type membrane-anchored gpG of VHSV) encoding either a soluble (gpG1-462) or a secreted soluble (gpGLmPle20-462) form of the VHSV-gpG. In vivo immunisation/challenge assays showed that only gpGLmPle20-462 (the secreted soluble form) conferred protective immunity against VHSV lethal challenge via both intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection, being this the first description of a fish viral DNA vaccine that confers protection when administered intraperitoneally. Moreover, this new DNA vaccine construct also conferred protection when administered in the presence of an oil adjuvant suggesting that DNA vaccines against rhabdoviruses could be included in the formulation of current multicomponent-intaperitoneally injectable fish vaccines formulated with an oil adjuvant. On the other hand, a strong recruitment of membrane immunoglobulin expressing B cells, mainly membrane IgT, as well as t-bet expressing T cells, at early times post-immunisation, was specifically observed in the fish immunised with the secreted soluble form of the VHSV-gpG protein; this may indicate that the subcellular location of plasmid-encoded antigen expression in the in vivo transfected cells could be an important factor in determining the ways in which DNA vaccines prime the immune response. © 2013 Martinez-Lopez et al.


Martinez-Lopez A.,University Miguel Hernández | Garcia-Valtanen P.,University Miguel Hernández | Ortega-Villaizan M.,University Miguel Hernández | Chico V.,University Miguel Hernández | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

We have recently identified the two major determinants of the glycoprotein G of the viral hemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (gpGVHSV), peptides p31 and p33 implicated in triggering the host type I IFN antiviral response associated to these rhabdoviral antigens. With the aim to investigate the properties of these viral glycoprotein regions as DNA molecular adjuvants, their corresponding cDNA sequences were cloned into a plasmid (pMCV1.4) flanked by the signal peptide and transmembrane sequences of gpGVHSV. In addition, a plasmid construct encoding both sequences p31 and p33 (pMCV1.4-p31+p33) was also designed. In vitro transitory cell transfection assays showed that these VHSV gpG regions were able to induce the expression of type I IFN stimulated genes as well as to confer resistance to the infection with a different fish rhabdovirus, the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). In vivo, zebrafish intramuscular injection of only 1μg of the construct pMCV1.4-p31+p33 conferred fish protection against SVCV lethal challenge up to 45 days post-immunization. Moreover, pMCV1.4-p31+p33 construct was assayed for molecular adjuvantcity's for a DNA vaccine against SVCV based in the surface antigen of this virus (pAE6-GSVCV). The results showed that the co-injection of the SVCV DNA vaccine and the molecular adjuvant allowed (i) a ten-fold reduction in the dose of pAE6-Gsvcv without compromising its efficacy (ii) an increase in the duration of protection, and (iii) an increase in the survival rate. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which specific IFN-inducing regions from a viral gpG are used to design more-efficient and cost-effective viral vaccines, as well as to improve our knowledge on how to stimulate the innate immune system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ortega-Villaizan M.,University Miguel Hernández | Chico V.,University Miguel Hernández | Martinez-Lopez A.,University Miguel Hernández | Falco A.,University Miguel Hernández | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

We have found out that transfection of the RTG-2 cell line with the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein G (GVHSV)-coding plasmid induces an anti-VHSV state, similar to that induced by poly I:C. Taking the advantage of the constitutive expression of toll-like receptor 9 gene (tlr9) in RTG-2 cells, we have investigated whether this antiviral state was induced by the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) motifs present in the plasmid DNA, by the endogenous expression of GVHSV protein or by both elements. For that, we have analysed the expression profile of the rainbow trout tlr9 and several genes related to TLR9-mediated immune response in the absence or presence of a lysosomotropic drug that specifically blocks TLR9-CpG DNA interaction. The results suggested that the high levels of cell protection conferred by a plasmid encoding GVHSV gene are due to GVHSV rather than to the CpG motifs within plasmid DNA. Therefore, plasmid DNA might not play a key role in the immune response elicited by DNA vaccines or perhaps other receptors instead TLR9 could be implicated in CpG motifs recognition and signalling. In addition, since RTG-2 cells express tlr9 gene, this cell line could be a good tool for screening TLR9 agonists, such as the immunomodulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs), as fish DNA vaccine adjuvants. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | INIA SIGT Biotecnologia and University Miguel Hernández
Type: | Journal: Antiviral research | Year: 2013

It is well known that -defensins are key components of the host innate immune response against pathogens and potentially provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate model species in numerous biomedical fields, three -defensin isoforms were recently identified. To our knowledge, however, studies describing antimicrobial or immunomodulatory properties of any of the zebrafish -defensins isoforms are absent today. Since it is indubitable that deepening the study of zebrafish -defensins would be of interest in this work we investigated whether or not the zebrafish -defensin 2 (zfBD2) has the antiviral properties described for their vertebrate counterparts. Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that zfBD2 has antiviral activity, immunomodulatory properties and, most importantly, is a potent viral DNA vaccine molecular adjuvant. In addition, a potential relationship between zfBD2 activity and the NF-B signaling pathway is suggested. Altogether these results show that the zebrafish could be a suitable in vivo animal model to study the roles played by -defensin 2 in viral diseases, vaccinology and even in clinical dermatology. To note that psoriasis can be induced in zebrafish and the over-expression of -defensin 2 is implicated in the inflammatory response associated with this human skin disorder.

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