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San-Segundo L.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | Guimaraes L.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Fernandez Torija C.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | Beltran E.M.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

In the present study, Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to a range of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations (0, 0.5, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 mg/L) for 96 h in laboratorial conditions to establish toxicity along with possible gene expression changes. Mortality and deformities were monitored daily and head-tail length was measured at the end of the assay as an indicator of growth. At 24 and 96 h post-exposure (hpe), the mRNA expression levels of the genetic markers involved in general stress responses (hsp70, hsp47, crh-a and ucn1), oxidative stress (cat.2 and sod), lipid metabolism (ppard) and apoptosis (tp53 and bax) were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Malformations were significantly higher in the embryos exposed to the highest PFOS concentration (41.8% to 56.4%) compared to controls (5.5%) at 48, 72 and 96 hpe. Growth inhibition was observed in the embryos exposed to PFOS concentrations≥48 mg/L. At 24 hpe, a statistically significant up-regulation of genes hsp70, hsp47, ppard, tp53 and bax in relation to controls was found. Similar responses were found for genes hsp70, hsp47, crh-a, ucn1, sod and ppard at 96 hpe. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels indicated both a stress response to PFOS exposure during X. laevis embryo development, and alterations in the regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and differentiation. These molecular alterations were detected at an earlier exposure time or at lower concentrations than those producing developmental toxicity. Therefore, these sensitive warning signals could be used together with other biomarkers to supplement alternative methods (i.e. the frog embryo test) for developmental toxicity safety evaluations, and as tools in amphibian risk assessments for PFOS and its potential substitutes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source


Villaverde J.J.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | Sevilla-Moran B.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | Lopez-Goti C.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | Alonso-Prados J.L.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology | Sandin-Espana P.,INIA National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

The legislative requirements and the concern about the harmful effects of pesticide residues have encouraged the development of methods to determine pesticides at trace levels in/on matrices of concern. The purpose of this work is to provide a state of art about the trends in the analysis of pesticide residues within the agrochemical sector, in order to fulfil the European pesticide Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 requirements. Promising emerging methodologies and novel instrumental techniques are also highlighted. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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