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Birmingham, United Kingdom

Cherif W.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | Cherif W.,Inherited Metabolic Diseases Unit | Ben Rhouma F.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | Messai H.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | And 12 more authors.
Annales de Biologie Clinique

Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme (AGL). It is characterized by hepatomegaly, progressive myopathy, cardiomyopathy and fasting hypoglycemia. Several mutations in AGL gene have been described in different populations. The W1327X mutation was reported in one Tunisian patient resident in Italy. We looked in this report to determine the frequency of W1327X mutation among Tunisian patients. The W1327X mutation was screening in 26 GSD III patients originated from various geographic locations in Tunisia. The sequence analysis revealed that among nine patients carried the W1327Xmutation. Eight of them were from six unrelated families and they were originated from Mahdia (centre of Tunisia) suggesting the existence of a founder effect in this region. Taking into account historical migratory waves, screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for molecular diagnosis confirmation of GSD III in North African populations. Source

Cullinane A.R.,University of Birmingham | Straatman-Iwanowska A.,University of Birmingham | Zaucker A.,University of Birmingham | Wakabayashi Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 23 more authors.
Nature Genetics

Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome (ARC) is a multisystem disorder associated with abnormalities in polarized liver and kidney cells. Mutations in VPS33B account for most cases of ARC. We identified mutations in VIPAR (also called C14ORF133) in individuals with ARC without VPS33B defects. We show that VIPAR forms a functional complex with VPS33B that interacts with RAB11A. Knockdown of vipar in zebrafish resulted in biliary excretion and E-cadherin defects similar to those in individuals with ARC. Vipar-and Vps33b-deficient mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMDC-3) cells expressed membrane proteins abnormally and had structural and functional tight junction defects. Abnormal Ceacam5 expression was due to mis-sorting toward lysosomal degradation, but reduced E-cadherin levels were associated with transcriptional downregulation. The VPS33B-VIPAR complex thus has diverse functions in the pathways regulating apical-basolateral polarity in the liver and kidney. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hartley J.L.,University of Birmingham | Hartley J.L.,Liver Unit | Zachos N.C.,Hopkins Center for Epithelial Disorders | Dawood B.,University College Birmingham | And 17 more authors.

Background & Aims: Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by life-threatening diarrhea in infancy, immunodeficiency, liver disease, trichorrhexis nodosa, facial dysmorphism, hypopigmentation, and cardiac defects. We attempted to characterize the phenotype and elucidate the molecular basis of THES. Methods: Twelve patients with classic THES from 11 families had detailed phenotyping. Autozygosity mapping was undertaken in 8 patients from consanguineous families using 250,000 single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and linked regions evaluated using microsatellite markers. Linkage was confirmed to one region from which candidate genes were analyzed. The effect of mutations on protein production and/or localization in hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells from affected patients was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Results: Previously unrecognized platelet abnormalities (reduced platelet α-granules, unusual stimulated alpha granule content release, abnormal lipid inclusions, abnormal platelet canalicular system, and reduced number of microtubules) were identified. The THES locus was mapped to 5q14.3-5q21.2. Sequencing of candidate genes showed mutations in TTC37, which encodes the uncharacterized tetratricopeptide repeat protein, thespin. Bioinformatic analysis suggested thespin to be involved in protein-protein interactions or chaperone. Preliminary studies of enterocyte brush-border ion transporter proteins (sodium hydrogen exchanger 2, sodium hydrogen exchanger 3, aquaporin 7, sodium iodide symporter, and hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]) showed reduced expression or mislocalization in all THES patients with different profiles for each. In contrast the basolateral localization of Na/K ATPase was not altered. Conclusions: THES is caused by mutations in TTC37. TTC37 mutations have a multisystem effect, which may be owing to abnormal stability and/or intracellular localization of TTC37 target proteins. © 2010 AGA Institute. Source

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