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Othman A.A.,University of Zakho | Eissa A.A.,Duhok University | Markous R.D.,Inherited Health | Ahmed B.D.,PCR Unit | Al-Allawi N.A.S.,Duhok University
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Year: 2014

Background and Aim: Owing to the scarcity of data on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Iraq and due to their epidemiological as well as therapy implications, this study was initiated aiming at determining these genotypes in Northern Iraq. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 HCV antibody positive multi transfused patients with hemoglobinopathies, who had detectable HCV ribonucleic acid, were recruited for genotyping using genotype-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: The most frequent genotype detected was genotype 4 (52.9%) followed by 3a (17.1%), 1b (12.9%) and 1a (1.4%), while mixed genotypes (4 with either 3a or 1b) were detected in 7.1%. Conclusion: The predominance of genotype 4 is similar to other studies from surrounding Eastern Mediterranean Arab countries and to the only earlier study from central Iraq, however the significant high proportion of 3a and scarcity of 1a, are in contrast to the latter study and may be explainable by the differing population interactions in this part of Iraq. This study complements previous studies from Eastern Mediterranean region and demonstrates relative heterogeneity of HCV genotype distribution within Iraq and should trigger further studies in other parts of the country.

Motwani M.,Member of the Manchester Academic Health Science Center | Banypersad S.,Member of the Manchester Academic Health Science Center | Woolfson P.,Member of the Manchester Academic Health Science Center | Waldek S.,Inherited Health
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Background: Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in Fabry disease (FD) can improve with enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT), the response is difficult to predict. Furthermore, the response of other cardiac features such as aortic dilatation and ECG changes are poorly understood. Methods: A local registry of 66 patients with FD was studied. ECG, echocardiogram and Fabry Outcome Survey-Mainz Severity Score Index (FOS-MSSI) data were compared between baseline and after long-term ERT (median 36. months). Results: In patients with LVH (n=42), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), maximal wall thickness (MWT), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and ejection fraction (EF) were all seen to improve after ERT (LVMI: 135±13 vs. 133±13g/m2, MWT: 17±6 vs. 16±5mm, LVEDD: 55±6 vs. 54±6mm; EF: 62±5 vs. 64±3%; p<0.05). In the entire patient group, PQ interval and P wave duration significantly increased with ERT (PQ: 131±13 vs. 144±13ms, P: 76±5 vs. 90±6ms; p values<0.001); QTc interval significantly decreased (418±18 vs. 410±15ms; p<0.001); and median FOS-MSSI score fell from 16 to 14 (p<0.001). On logistic-regression analysis, none of the recorded baseline features (age, gender, LVMI, MWT, LVEDD, aortic diameter, EF, PQ interval, P wave duration, QRS duration, QT interval, Romhilt-Estes score or FOS-MSSI) predicted improvements in LVH or FOS-MSSI with ERT (p>0.05). Conclusions: ERT improved LV morphology and function in patients with LVH - but there was no relationship between age, gender, FOS-MSSI or baseline ECG/TTE features and the response. ERT also normalised long QTc intervals, short PQ intervals and short P waves; and reduced disease burden (FOS-MSSI). © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Davis S.K.,Cardiovascular Research Institute | Gebreab S.,Cardiovascular Research Institute | Quarells R.,Morehouse School of Medicine | Gibbons G.H.,Inherited Health | Gibbons G.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Ethnicity and Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess the associations of social determinants on cardiovascular health among White and Black residing in Stroke Belt (urban) and Stroke Buckle (rural) regions of the South. Design: A cross-sectional observational analysis based on a random digit-dial telephone survey of a representative sample of White and Black adults residing in urban and rural Georgia conducted from 2004-2005. Separate logistic regression analyses examined the effects of social determinants on cardiovascular health within and between White and Black women and within and between urban and rural residential location. The main outcome measure was poor cardiovascular health defined as ≤2 self-reported clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, overweight or obese). Social determinants were defined as socioeconomic status (SES), general daily stress, racial discrimination, and stress due to exposure to racial discrimination. Significance was established as a two-tailed P<.05. Results: A total of 674 White and Black women aged 18-90 years were included in the sample. Results showed Black women with lower SES had worse cardiovascular health than White women in both rural and urban areas (rural odds ratio [OR] 2.68; confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 4.90; P =.001; urban OR=2.92; CI=1.62, 5.23; P=.0003). White women reporting high or very high exposure to general daily stress where more likely to have worse cardiovascular health than White women reporting very little to no daily stress (OR =2.85; CI=1.49, 5.44; P=.001). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the importance of social determinants associated with cardiovascular health. Tailored cardiovascular risk reduction intervention is needed among lower SES Black women in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South, as well as stress-reduction intervention among White women in the South.

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