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Pohang, South Korea

Song J.A.,Konkuk University | Song J.A.,Inhalation Toxicology Center | Kim H.J.,Konkuk University | Hong S.K.,Konkuk University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection

Background: Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease. Because of the high genetic variability of viruses, effective vaccines and antiviral agents are limited. Considering the fact that the site of influenza virus entry is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, probiotics that can enhance mucosal immunity as well as systemic immunity could be an important source of treatment against influenza infection. Methods: Mice were fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 or skim milk and were challenged with influenza virus. The resulting survival rate, lung inflammation, and changes in the cytokine and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels were examined. Results: Because of infection (influenza virus), all the mice in the control group and 60% of the mice in the L. rhamnosus M21 group died; however, the remaining 40% of the mice fed with L. rhamnosus M21 survived the infection. Pneumonia was severe in the control group but moderate in the group treated with L. rhamnosus M21. Although there were no significant changes in the proinflammatory cytokines in the lung lysates of mice collected from both groups, levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-2, which are representative cytokines of type I helper T cells, were significantly increased in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. An increase in sIgA as well as the diminution of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also observed in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that orally administered L. rhamnosus M21 activates humoral as well as cellular immune responses, conferring increased resistance to the host against influenza virus infection. © 2014. Source

Park E.-J.,National Health Research Institute | Roh J.,Kwangwoon University | Kim S.-N.,Inhalation Toxicology Center | Kang M.-S.,Inhalation Toxicology Center | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology

Large amounts of nanomaterials may reach both the natural and occupational environments. This represents a potential health hazard. People have forecasted that CNTs may lead to the toxicity such as mesothelioma and fibrosis like asbestos. To identify dominant immune responses induced by SWCNTs, we investigated the composition of bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, the secretion of cytokine and collagen, histopathology, protein expression, and cell phenotypes over time after a single administration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). In our results, the number of total cells and macrophages remained at the up-regulated level until Day 28, neutrophils rapidly increased at Day 1, and lymphocytes increased from Day 7. In the BAL fluid, pro-inflammatory cytokines rapidly increased at Day 1 and remained at an up-regulated level throughout the experimental period. IL-12 and IL-10 rapidly increased at Day 1 after administration and remained at a similar level until Day 28. IFN-γ and IL-4 reached the maximum at Day 1, and IL-5, TGF-β, and collagen reached the maximum at Day 7. IL-13 and IL-17 increased in a time-dependent manner. The distribution of B cells and cytotoxic T cells markedly increased at Days 7 and 14, and fibrotic lesions were histopathologically observed at Days 7 and 14. The expressions of caspase-3, p53, COL1A1, COX-2, iNOS, MMP-9, and MMP-2 were also markedly increased at Days 7 and 14. In addition, the expression of mesothelin, iNOS, MMP-9, and p53 was up-regulated until Day 28. Based on these findings, we suggest that a single intratracheal instillation of SWCNTs may induce early lung fibrosis and subchronic tissue damage. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Kim S.N.,Inhalation Toxicology Center | Lee J.,Inhalation Toxicology Center | Lee J.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Yang H.-S.,Inhalation Toxicology Center | And 8 more authors.
Toxicological Research

Many studies have reported that bleomycin, anti-cancer drug, induces pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect. However, few investigations have focused on the dose-response effects of bleomycin on pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of different doses of bleomycin in male mice. ICR mice were given 3 consecutive doses of bleomycin: 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg in bleomycin-treated (BT) groups and saline only in vehicle control (VC) groups. The animals were sacrificed at 7 and 24 days postinstillation. The severity of pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated according to inflammatory cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues were histologically evaluated after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and Masson's trichrome staining. BT groups exhibited changed cellular profiles in BAL fluid compared to the VC group, which had an increased number of total cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and a modest increase in the number of macrophages at 7 days post-bleomycin instillation. Moreover, BT groups showed a dose-dependent increase in LDH levels and inflammatory cell counts. However, at 24 days after treatment, collagen deposition, interstitial thickening, and granulomatous lesions were observed in the alveolar spaces in addition to a decrease in inflammatory cells. These results indicate that pulmonary fibrosis induced by 4 mg/kg bleomycin was more severe than that induced by 1 or 2 mg/kg. These data will be utilized in experimental animal models and as basic data to evaluate therapeutic candidates through non-invasive monitoring using the pulmonary fibrosis mouse model established in this study. Source

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