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Incheon, South Korea

Inha University ) is a private research university located in Incheon, South Korea.Known traditionally for research and education in the engineering and physical science, the University was established by the first president of South Korea, Syngman Rhee. It is a Korean-American collaboration school, even in its name: the Morpheme "In" comes from the city of Incheon and "Ha" comes from Hawaii, USA. At first time, it started as a technical college, named Inha Institute of Technology .Currently, Inha is ranked 10th nationwide, and especially 4th in Engineering and Science, by JoongAng Ilbo's annual ranking of South Korean universities. Inha is a member of GU8. Wikipedia.

Through micromagnetic simulations, it was found that the spin transfer torque (STT) switching current density is reduced with non-collinear polarizer layer magnetization. The dependence of the switching current density on the polarizer layer magnetization angle was investigated, and a typical magnetic tunneling junction structure with an exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnetic polarizer layers was considered. The easy axis of the polarizer layer was varied through controlling the exchange bias field direction in the ellipse cross-section nano-pillar structures. It was found that the switching current density was reduced by 39% when the exchange bias field was 10° from the long axis of the ellipse without the perpendicular STT. When the effect of the perpendicular STT was included, the switching current reductions were general for the non-collinear polarizer layer. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source

Cheong W.J.,Inha University
Journal of Separation Science

It is surprising that there has been no devoted review article for frits and relevant studies so far despite the long history of packed columns and the use of frits in them. This review was activated for such a reason. Both separate frits and in situ permanent frits have been covered since the appearance of primitive frits. The in situ fritting methods such as the formation of organic monoliths, sol-gel technology, sintering, fritless techniques such as tapered tip and capillary restrictors, and miscellaneous fritting techniques including magnetically trapped frits and single particle frits are introduced and discussed. In addition, frit-related studies and patents are also introduced. Finally, some conclusive comments on the choice of fritting technique in different situations and future perspectives are given. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Zhang N.,Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics | Choi Y.,Inha University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Recently, a relatively new methodology named directional distance function (DDF) has been attracting positive attention in the field of energy and environmental (E&E) modeling. However, there is still no literature review on the application of DDF in E&E studies. This paper is intended to fill this gap. First, the most widely used DDF techniques and its extensions are briefly introduced. Second, this article attempts a classification of typical publications in this field. The main issues raised by the previous studies are discussed. Some guidelines for model selection and future directions are proposed for DDF related research in E&E studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Of all the intracellular organelles, secretory granules contain by far the highest calcium concentration; secretory granules of typical neuroendocrine chromaffin cells contain ∼40 mM Ca2+ and occupy ∼20% cell volume, accounting for >60% of total cellular calcium. They also contain the majority of cellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in addition to the presence of >2 mM of chromogranins A and B that function as high-capacity, low-affinity Ca2+ storage proteins. Chromogranins A and B also interact with the IP3Rs and activate the IP 3R/Ca2+ channels. In experiments with both neuroendocrine PC12 and nonneuroendocrine NIH3T3 cells, in which the number of secretory granules present was changed by either suppression or induction of secretory granule formation, secretory granules were demonstrated to account for >70% of the IP3-induced Ca2+ releases in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the IP3 sensitivity of secretory granule IP3R/Ca 2+ channels is at least ∼6- to 7-fold more sensitive than those of the endoplasmic reticulum, thus enabling secretory granules to release Ca2+ ahead of the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, there is a direct correlation between the number of secretory granules and the IP3 sensitivity of cytoplasmic IP3R/Ca2+ channels and the increased ratio of IP3-induced cytoplasmic Ca2+ release, highlighting the importance of secretory granules in the IP3-dependent Ca2+ signaling. Given that secretory granules are present in all secretory cells, these results presage critical roles of secretory granules in the control of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations in other secretory cells. - Yoo, S. H. Secretory granules in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphatedependent Ca2+ signaling in the cytoplasm of neuroendocrine cells. © FASEB. Source

We investigate the dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant in the spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junction using micromagnetic simulations. Since the widely accepted analytic expression of the switching current density is based on the macrospin model, there is no dependence on the exchange stiffness constant. However, we found strong dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant because of the formation of complex spin configurations. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. Source

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