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Witwer R.S.,Ingredion Incorporated
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech | Year: 2013

Consumers are concerned about the impact of carbohydrates on their blood sugar levels. While there has been considerable discussion on the post-prandial glycémie response of foods, the research has been chronically inconsistent in confirming potentiel health benefits. In contrast, insulin sensitivity is directly connected to maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. This review will profile the evidence demonstrating that type 2 resistant starch from high amylose corn is ideal for formulating foods to help people manage their blood sugar levels. It has a reduced post-prandial glycémie response, it significantly improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar metabolism, it replaces flour in formulations while maintaining the taste and textures that consumers prefer and it can be used as a supplement to the diet.

Dar Y.L.,Ingredion Incorporated
Cereal Foods World | Year: 2013

Wheat allergies and gluten intolerance or sensitivity cause health problems for a significant number of people. Although our understanding of gluten-related disorders and their diagnosis is increasing, several aspects are still not well understood. In most cases, a gluten-free diet is the only way to manage these disorders. The growing awareness of gluten intolerance is creating new opportunities in the marketplace for gluten-free products. However, gluten-free product development presents a considerable challenge for food product developers at several different points in the process. A defined set of regulatory guidelines for gluten measurement and gluten-free labeling have been developed in the United States and Europe, with ongoing developments in several parts of the world. To be labeled "gluten-free," products and their ingredients must be tested to ensure they meet the standards specified in these regulations. Supply-chain considerations also play a key role in ensuring the glutenfree status of food products. Several technical factors related to product functionality present a challenge for gluten-free product development as well. Many gluten-free native flours and starches, modified starches, and gums are being used in gluten-free formulations. However, these gluten-free baked products typically differ in flavor, texture, and appearance from their wheat-containing counterparts. Combinations of starches, flours, and other ingredients can be used to develop gluten-free products with flavors and textures that are similar to wheat flour-based products in some specific applications. However, to date there is still no one set of ingredients that can be used as a direct wheat flour replacement- an optimal wheat flour replacer still needs to be discovered or developed . Currently, the closest approach is the use of a combination of modified or functional native starches or flours, including fibers, proteins, and hydrocolloids as cotexturizers and nutrition supplements. © 2013 AACC International, Inc.

Vidrine K.,Louisiana State University | Ye J.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Martin R.J.,Western Human Nutrition Research Center | McCutcheon K.L.,Louisiana State University | And 12 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective Obesity is a health concern. Resistant starch (RS) type 2 from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary sodium butyrate (SB) reduce abdominal fat in rodents. RS treatment is associated with increased gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), but it is not known if SB increases these hormones. Design and Methods This was investigated in a 2 × 2 rat study with HAM-RS2 (0 or 28% weight) and dietary sodium butyrate (0 and 3.2%) resulting in isocaloric treatments: energy control (EC), sodium butyrate (SB), HAM-RS2 (RS), and the combination (SBRS). Results RS and SB reduced abdominal fat and the combination reduced abdominal fat compared to SB and RS. RS was associated with increased fermentation in the cecum. Serum PYY and GLP-1 total were increased with RS treatment. RS treatment was associated with increased cecal butyrate produced from fermentation of RS, but there was no cecal increase for dietary SB. Conclusions SB after its absorption into the blood appears to not affect production of PYY and GLP-1, while butyrate from fermentation in the cecum promotes increased PYY and GLP-1. Future studies with lower doses of RS and SB are warranted and the combination may be beneficial for human health. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

Keenan M.J.,Louisiana State University | Janes M.,Louisiana State University | Robert J.,Louisiana State University | Martin R.J.,Western Human Nutrition Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective: Obesity after menopause is a health concern for older females. Changes in the microbiota are likely to occur with this condition. Modifying the microbiota with a prebiotic is a plausible strategy for improving the health of menopausal females. Design and Methods: Resistant starch type 2 from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) was used as a prebiotic in rats in a 2 × 2 factorial study with two levels of HAM-RS2 (0 or 29.7% of weight of diet) referred to as energy control (EC) and HAM-RS2 diets, respectively; and two levels of surgery, ovariectomized (OVX) and sham. Results: In a 6-week, postsurgery recovery period, OVX rats gained more body weight with consumption of a similar amount of food. Subsequently, consumption of HAM-RS2 versus EC diets resulted in reduced abdominal fat in both OVX and sham rats; but when normalized for disemboweled body weight (body weight minus GI tract), there was no effect of surgery, only reduction with HAM-RS2. Targeted bacterial populations were estimated that are known to ferment HAM-RS2 or metabolize the products of that initial fermentation. OVX and sham rats demonstrated increased bacterial levels with dietary HAM-RS2 for all bacteria. Additionally, culture techniques and qPCR provided similar results. Conclusion: This study shows that, as expected, OVX increases adiposity. However, contrary to previous effects seen in obese mice, this did not prevent fermentation of HAM-RS2 and consequently, the fat gain associated with OVX was attenuated. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

Charrier J.A.,Louisiana State University | Martin R.J.,Western Human Nutrition Research Center | McCutcheon K.L.,Louisiana State University | Raggio A.M.,Louisiana State University | And 10 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective The effects of type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) in rodents fed with low-fat diets were demonstrated in previous studies. Fish oil is also reported to reduce body fat. In the current study, the effects of high fat and fish oil on HAM-RS2 feeding in rats were investigated. Design and Methods Rats were fed 0 or 27% (weight) HAM-RS2 with low (15% energy) or high fat (42% energy) diets that included 0 or 10% (energy) tuna oil to test the effect of HAM-RS2 in diet-induced obesity and effects of tuna oil. Data were analyzed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial. Results Rats fed HAM-RS2 had decreased cecal contents pH, increased cecal and cecal contents weight, increased cecal contents acetate, propionate, and butyrate, increased GLP-1 and PYY, and decreased abdominal fat. However, high fat partially attenuated effects of HAM-RS2, but increased GLP-1 active. Dietary tuna oil had limited effects at concentration used. Conclusions Results demonstrated that a high fat diet partially attenuates the response to HAM-RS2. The mechanism may center on reduced levels of cecal contents propionate and butyrate and reduced serum PYY. This study demonstrated that with consumption of high fat, HAM-RS2 produces fermentation but results in partial attenuation of effects. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

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