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Milano, Italy

Pema M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Pema M.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Drusian L.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Drusian L.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | And 9 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Previous studies report a cross-talk between the polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes. mTOR signalling is upregulated in PKD and rapamycin slows cyst expansion, whereas renal inactivation of the Tsc genes causes cysts. Here we identify a new interplay between the PKD and TSC genes, with important implications for the pathophysiology of both diseases. Kidney-specific inactivation of either Pkd1 or Tsc1 using an identical Cre (KspCre) results in aggressive or very mild PKD, respectively. Unexpectedly, we find that mTORC1 negatively regulates the biogenesis of polycystin-1 (PC-1) and trafficking of the PC-1/2 complex to cilia. Genetic interaction studies reveal an important role for PC-1 downregulation by mTORC1 in the cystogenesis of Tsc1 mutants. Our data potentially explain the severe renal manifestations of the TSC/PKD contiguous gene syndrome and open new perspectives for the use of mTOR inhibitors in autosomal dominant PKD caused by hypomorphic or missense PKD1 mutations. Source

Brina D.,INGM | Miluzio A.,INGM | Ricciardi S.,INGM | Clarke K.,University of Liverpool | And 20 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Insulin regulates glycaemia, lipogenesis and increases mRNA translation. Cells with reduced eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) do not increase translation in response to insulin. The role of insulin-regulated translation is unknown. Here we show that reduction of insulin-regulated translation in mice heterozygous for eIF6 results in normal glycaemia, but less blood cholesterol and triglycerides. eIF6 controls fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis in a cell autonomous fashion. eIF6 acts by exerting translational control of adipogenic transcription factors like C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ and ATF4 that have G/C rich or uORF sequences in their 5′ UTR. The outcome of the translational activation by eIF6 is a reshaping of gene expression with increased levels of lipogenic and glycolytic enzymes. Finally, eIF6 levels modulate histone acetylation and amounts of rate-limiting fatty acid synthase (Fasn) mRNA. Since obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer require a Fasn-driven lipogenic state, we propose that eIF6 could be a therapeutic target for these diseases. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Zingaretti C.,INGM | Arigo M.,INGM | Cardaci A.,INGM | Moro M.,INGM | And 22 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2012

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an unresolving inflammation of the liver of unknown cause. Diagnosis requires the exclusion of other conditions and the presence of characteristic features such as specific autoantibodies. Presently, these autoantibodies have relatively low sensitivity and specificity and are identified via immunostaining of cells or tissues; therefore, there is a diagnostic need for better and easy-to-assess markers. To identify new AIH-specific autoantigens, we developed a protein microarray comprising 1626 human recombinant proteins, selected in silico for being secreted or membrane associated. We screened sera from AIH patients on this microarray and compared the reactivity with that of sera from healthy donors and patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. We identified six human proteins that are specifically recognized by AIH sera. Serum reactivity to a combination of four of these autoantigens allows identification of AIH patients with high sensitivity (82%) and specificity (92%). Of the six autoantigens, the interleukin-4 (IL4) receptor fibronectin type III domain of the IL4 receptor (CD124), which is expressed on the surface of both lymphocytes and hepatocytes, showed the highest individual sensitivity and specificity for AIH. Remarkably, patients' sera inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation induced by IL4 binding to CD124, demonstrating that these autoantibodies are functional and suggesting that IL4 neutralization has a pathogenetic role in AIH. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Marabita F.,Karolinska Institutet | De Candia P.,INGM | Torri A.,INGM | Tegner J.,Karolinska Institutet | And 2 more authors.
Briefings in Bioinformatics | Year: 2016

The high-throughput analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating within the blood of healthy and diseased individuals is an active area of biomarker research. Whereas quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based methods are widely used, it is yet unresolved how the data should be normalized. Here, we show that a combination of different algorithms results in the identification of candidate reference miRNAs that can be exploited as normalizers, in both discovery and validation phases. Using the methodology considered here, we identify normalizers that are able to reduce nonbiological variation in the data and we present several case studies, to illustrate the relevance in the context of physiological or pathological scenarios. In conclusion, the discovery of stable reference miRNAs from high-throughput studies allows appropriate normalization of focused qPCR assays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Brina D.,INGM | Miluzio A.,INGM | Ricciardi S.,INGM | Biffo S.,INGM
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2015

Here we discuss the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6; Tif6 in yeast). eIF6 binds 60S ribosomal subunits and blocks their joining to 40S. In this context, we propose that eIF6 impedes unproductive 80S formation, namely, the formation of 80S subunits without mRNA. Genetic evidence shows that eIF6 has a dual function: in yeast and mammals, nucleolar eIF6 is necessary for the biogenesis of 60S subunits. In mammals, cytoplasmic eIF6 is required for insulin and growth factor-stimulated translation. In contrast to other translation factors, eIF6 activity is not under mTOR control. The physiological significance of eIF6 impacts on cancer and on inherited Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. eIF6 is overexpressed in specific human tumors. In a murine model of lymphomagenesis, eIF6 depletion leads to a striking increase of survival, without adverse effects. Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome is caused by loss of function of SBDS protein. In yeast, point mutations of Tif6, the yeast homolog of eIF6, rescue the quasi-lethal effect due to the loss of the SBDS homolog, Sdo1. We propose that eIF6 is a node regulator of ribosomal function and predict that prioritizing its pharmacological targeting will be of benefit in cancer and Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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