Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific

Shanghai, China

Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific

Shanghai, China

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Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Residential Solutions | Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific | Zheng X.,Clemson University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

There is an increasing awareness that there are limits to the availability of non-renewable resources, while there is an increasing energy demand throughout the world. This demand is expected to be satisfied through the efficient renewable energy in the near future. However, the world is facing the challenge of variable renewable energy outputs due to a stochastic feature of the energy sources. Thermal energy storage (TES) can be a good option for mitigating the effects of intermittent renewable resources on the networks. It can not only allow the increased renewable energy and night time low price electricity utilization, but also provide flexibility and ancillary services for managing future electricity supply/demand challenges. In this paper, various TES forms, including sensible, latent and sorption are explained and summarized for their performance enhancement. More importantly, from the perspective of sustainability, various integration forms for different applications are systematically introduced, such as TES integration with hot water supply, air conditioners and heat pumps, TES integration with building construction systems, and TES integration with power production cycles, cogeneration, food transport, solar cookers and vehicle systems for thermal comfort. Therefore, this study is beneficial to designing more sustainable thermal systems by the researchers and engineers. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Residential Solutions | Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Sensible heat thermal energy storage has been drawing increasing attention for various applications for many years, which is an important technology for solving the time-discrepancy problem of waste or renewable energy utilization. This paper reviews available technologies for sensible heat storage under various operating conditions and storage tank geometries. Several aspects from sensible storage material, water stratification phenomenon, heat storage heat transfer modes, and various influencing factors, have been detailed for introduction. The influencing factors for energy and exergy performance were investigated and summarized from the fluid mass flow rate, storage tank geometrical structure, fluid properties, fluid inlet temperature, etc. The performance comparison with the latent thermal storage system was also briefly studied. The paper is beneficial for the researchers and engineers to design more efficient and optimized sensible storage systems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Residential Solutions | Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

The utilization of low grade energy and renewable energy heat sources for power generation in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system has received more attention in recent decades. In this study, working fluid candidates for various ORC applications based on the heat source temperature domains have been investigated for the thermal efficiency, exegry destruction rate and mass flow rate under different ORC configurations. The net power output from the ORC remains constant. The thermal efficiency increases as the condensing temperature diminishes, and decreases as the evaporating pressure recedes. As the condensing temperature and evaporating pressure are fixed, it can be found that as the critical temperature of the working fluid is increased, the thermal efficiency can be increased. As the heat source temperature scale increases, the operating evaporating pressure of the working fluids can be extended. The ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHX) has a higher thermal efficiency than the baseline ORC. The reheat ORC thermal efficiency is close to the baseline ORC. The regenerative ORC can achieve higher thermal efficiency than the baseline by reducing the addition of heat from the evaporator heat source. The performance of working fluid mass flow rate can reach their maximum in the low thermal efficiency region. The ORC with IHX and regenerative ORC have a lower value for exergy destruction as compared to baseline. Reheat ORC has a slightly higher exergy destruction rate. The evaporator is the largest contributor for the exergy destruction rate. In addition, the effect of IHX effectiveness, reheat pressure and regenerative intermediate pressure on system performance has been revealed and identified. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.All right reserved.


Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Residential Solutions | Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Exploration and utilization of the waste or renewable energy become more and more important for power generation in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems in recent decades. In this study the economic assessment under different ORC configurations has been investigated for working fluids for different applications with the assumption that the net power output remains constant. A lower condensing temperature or a higher evaporating pressure can lead to a lower specific cost per kilowatt hour. With the heat source domain increased from the geothermal application to the high temperature solar/biomass application, the operating evaporating pressure can be extended and a lower specific cost per kilowatt hour can be achieved within the appropriate pressure region. In general, the ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHX) has the close specific cost to the baseline ORC due to the additional cost of the IHX for the low heat source domains. With the heat source scale lifted to the high level, a decrease of specific cost per kilowatt hour up to 10% for the cycle with IHX compared with that of the baseline cycle. The specific cost per kilowatt hour for the reheat ORC is the highest among the current ORC configurations, while the regenerative ORC can achieve the lowest specific cost, with approximately 5–10% specific cost reduction from the baseline for various applications, whose economic benefits indicate it can be a promising alternative for ORC applications. In addition, the effect of IHX effectiveness, reheat pressure and regenerative intermediate pressure on the economic assessment has been revealed to outline the economic merits of ORC systems. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Residential Solutions | Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments | Year: 2015

A comprehensive investigation for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) and material life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed under various influencing factors for the packaged conditioners. The whole carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq.) emissions during an air conditioner's lifetime are evaluated from the LCCP aspect. Results indicate that the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) rating has a large influence on the emission variation, 13 SEER R410A has approximately a +3% CO2-eq. emission increase when compared with the 13 SEER R22 in the area of Richmond, which is mainly caused by the direct emission of annual leakage of high GWP R410A. The efficient 14 SEER R410A unit depicts a 9% reduction. In general, as the climate is varied from cold to hot, the emissions are increased. Among the emission contributors, the energy consumption accounts for more than 70% of the total emissions, followed by annual refrigerant leakage. Parameter analysis reveals that the refrigerant recovery rate has a larger effect on the LCCP results than the cycle degradation coefficient, especially in the cold areas. In addition, the two capacity air conditioner product has approximately a 13% emission reduction due to the better load matching. Material LCA investigation shows that, in general, most of the material phase environmental performance is decreased in 14 SEER air conditioners. This is because the addition of aluminum from employing of the micro-channel heat exchanger. For a sustainable future, minimizing material use and CO2-eq. emissions and maximizing energy efficiency should have been considered in its entirety. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang L.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific | Tao L.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
Heat and Mass Transfer/Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung | Year: 2015

Experimental investigation for the flow boiling of water in a vertical rectangular channel was conducted to reveal the boiling heat transfer mechanism and flow patterns map aspects. The onset of nucleate boiling went upward with the increasing of the working fluid mass flow rate or the decreasing of the inlet working fluid temperature. As the vapour quality was increased, the local heat transfer coefficient increased first, then decreased, followed by various flow patterns. The test data from other researchers had a similar pattern transition for the bubble-slug flow and the slug-annular flow. Flow pattern transition model analysis was performed to make the comparison with current test data. The slug-annular and churn-annular transition models showed a close trend with current data except that the vapor phase superficial velocity of flow pattern transition was much higher than that of experimental data. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Li G.,Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center Asia Pacific
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Abstract Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) can be an efficient option to cater to fluctuating energy demands and at the same time to obtain a higher performance from the energy and exergy aspects. Latent heat TES storage performance is usually influenced by various operating conditions and design parameters during the energy/exergy stored and retrieved. The scope of investigation is to comprehensively review various useful techniques adopted in detail for energy and exergy performance enhancements, and provide the perspectives for researchers and engineers to design more efficient latent TES systems. Various influencing factors can be enlarged to include the heat transfer fluid (HTF) mass flow rate and inlet temperature, phase change material (PCM) melting temperature and number, additives for PCMs, storage unit dimension, heat exchanger surface enhancement, and sensible heating and sub-cooling, etc. The main perspectives and directions including heat transfer mechanism and optimized multiple PCM melting point are provided to enable further research. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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