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Heijnen M.,Inge GmbH | Winkler R.,Inge GmbH | Berg P.,Inge GmbH
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2012

The main advantage of inge Water Technologies' Multibore® membrane geometry lies in the extreme durability of the membrane. Membrane breakage is virtually impossible, which gives it a real competitive edge over single bore membrane systems. One of the drawbacks was that the Multibore® took up more volume in comparison to seven single bore membranes, which led to a higher m2 price of the membrane as well as a lower packing density in a module. Further optiisations have now addressed these points so that the Multibore® is not only a much tougher membrane with an optimum microorganism rejection; now it can also achieve a higher packing density without any additional costs in comparison to single bore membranes. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Naim R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Epsztein R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Felder A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Heyer M.,Inge GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2014

In-line coagulation with aluminum or iron salts and ultrafiltration (UF) or microfiltration (MF) membranes is a valuable treatment option. The efficiency of the treatment is often evaluated by the achieved separation degree. That separation-oriented approach implies the coagulation with doses that are prohibitively high for many operations including the tertiary effluent treatment. The main purpose of the advanced wastewater treatment however is the retention of microorganisms and suspended solids, and that goal can be achieved even without coagulants. Thus the in-line coagulation can pursue the prevention or minimization of the irreversible fouling as an ultimate goal not related to the maximal separation of organic and inorganic impurities. Pilot experiments at conventional activated sludge (CAS) municipal wastewater treatment plant confirmed that the addition of 1 mg/L Fe3+ prevents the irreversible fouling as efficiently as the addition of 5 and 10 mg/L Fe3+. The economic impact of the suggested alteration is significant. Estimated operational expenses (OPEX) of a filtration at 60 LMH with 45 min cycles and 1 chemical - enhanced backwash per day is around 2 cents (€)/m3, almost a half of an OPEX of the separation-oriented treatment. Intermittent in-line coagulation down to first 2.5 min of 30 and 45 min filtration cycles is another cost-effective method to successfully depress the fouling. The success is explained by two-stage kinetics of a cake formation. At ripening stage, a layer of flocks restricted by a membrane gradually covers its surface and forms an initial dynamic cake. At operable stage, the cake entraps fresh solutes and prevents their contact with a membrane surface even without a coagulant. A superposition of two approaches reduces the consumption of ferric chloride coagulant by 94%. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Holland D.,Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. | Reid T.K.,Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. | Buchta P.,Inge GmbH
AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference and Exposition 2013 | Year: 2013

As requirements for wastewater reuse quality are becoming increasingly more difficult across the United States, conventional tertiary filtration is often unable to deliver the required performance and reliability necessary to meet the new objectives. As a result, tertiary filtration is often supplemented or replaced with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in the technology selection process. While some approaches couple the membranes with existing tertiary filtration systems, many applications directly apply clarified secondary effluent to the membranes. Unless the tertiary filters exist, a common perception holds that the required effluent quality can be achieved with membranes at a lower cost by eliminating the selection of intermediate tertiary filters. However, a strategy which employs tertiary filtration to precondition the water prior to membrane treatment offers distinct advantages, such as reduced operating costs, improved flexibility and increased reliability. Under most circumstances, the operation and maintenance (O&M) savings will offset the higher initial investment and yield a lower life cycle cost. To help determine the extent of the O&M reduction, this paper will compare operating parameters of a UF pilot system treating the same clarified secondary wastewater with and without the benefit of tertiary filtration. © 2013 American Water Works Association.


Holland D.,Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. | Reid T.K.,Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. | Buchta P.,Inge GmbH
AWWA/AMTA 2014 Membrane Technology Conference and Exposition | Year: 2014

According to the USEPA's Nutrient Pollution website, "nutrient pollution is one of America's most widespread, costly and challenging environmental problems, and is caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the air and water" [USEPA (2013)]. Phosphorus (P) in the water increases algae growth, which can kill off the waterway's plant and animal life, produce harmful dioxins when disinfected for drinking water, and create a decline in the tourism, fishing, and real estate industries. To combat this problem, several areas in the U.S. now, or will soon, require low levels of phosphorus in the effluent of wastewater plants discharging to state waterways. One such example of this is the Cahaba River basin in Alabama; wastewater plants discharging more than 1 MGD (3,788 m3/day) into this river - or tributaries feeding it - will be required to meet an average monthly total phosphorus limit of 0.043 mg/l by 2022. To determine how to consistently meet these low phosphorus limits, a pilot study was conducted in December of 2012 at the Buxahatchee Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Calera, AL. The main plant processes are a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) secondary system and a cloth media filtration (CMF) tertiary system. To achieve the required ultra-low phosphorus level, a sidestream of the filter effluent was passed through an ultrafiltration (UF) pilot unit. This paper describes the system parameters required to obtain ultra-low effluent phosphorus levels. In addition, some of the challenges encountered in the study are discussed, along with how these challenges were overcome. Copyright © 2014 by the American Water Works Association.


Kruger R.,Inge GmbH | Vial D.,Inge GmbH | Buchta P.,Inge GmbH | Winkler R.,Inge GmbH
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

Ultrafiltration (UF) has established itself as one of the key technologies in the water treatment industry over the last decade, providing superior filtrate water quality regardless of fluctuations in the feedwater quality and protecting downstream treatment steps. UF has demonstrated its advantages as seawater reverse osmosis pre-treatment for desalination application improving reverse osmosis membranes performances while extending their service life. In-depth knowledge of polymeric chemistry is mandatory for developing, manufacturing and operating new membranes. On-site evaluation of membrane performance on real water is also essential. Seawater properties can vary significantly depending on location and region. This makes it very important to pilot in order to understand the challenges and how to address them. This paper presents results obtained at different sites operating on seawater under particularly difficult conditions using inge® Multibore® membranes. The study describes membrane behavior when operated during algae blooms, during a monsoon period and during extreme low water temperatures (0°C). It presents process adjustments realized to optimize the overall performance. The study shows that system optimization yields stable and long-term operation on challenging seawater without pre-treatment upstream of the UF membranes. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Kruger R.,Inge GmbH | Vial D.,Inge GmbH | Arifin D.,BASF | Weber M.,BASF | Heijnen M.,Inge GmbH
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

For a consistent and reliable ultrafiltration (UF) membrane operation, the membrane flux level has always been determined conservatively so that fouling rate is controllable, and therefore, chemical cleaning requirements are minimized. A better solution is to prevent the fouling to happen in the first place by modifying the surface properties of the membrane materials. This paper presents novel approaches to improve the fouling-propensity performance of existing UF membranes based on polyethersulfone. More hydrophilic membranes and anti-adhesive membranes were developed by using various novel copolymers as base membrane materials or as an additive in the spinning process. Incorporating these copolymers, improved Multibore® fibers were produced and validated in multiple pilot trials for various applications, namely surface and wastewater purification and seawater reverse osmosis pretreatment for desalination. The paper demonstrates that, for each application, a reduced fouling propensity performance was achieved, allowing the fibers to be operated at a substantially higher flux of up to 30%. This study underscores the importance of chemistry in obtaining low-fouling and high-performance UF membranes by modifying their surface properties. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Borsi I.,University of Florence | Caretti C.,University of Florence | Fasano A.,University of Florence | Heijnen M.,Inge GmbH | Lubello C.,University of Florence
Desalination | Year: 2012

This paper presents the results of a study aimed at estimating the efficiency of the ultrafiltration process for the treatment of secondary effluents to be reused in wet textile industries. This approach was experienced at pilot scale at Baciacavallo wastewater treatment plant in Prato (Italy). During the experimental trials the membrane filtration process was optimized in terms of running time, backwash, chemicals addition, cleaning procedures and running cost. A transmembrane pressure of 270mbar and a hydraulic permeability of 200l/(hbarm 2) were ensured. According to the experimental results the treatment guaranteed the compliance with the target values for wastewater reuse in wet textile industries. Mathematical tools were used to simulate the efficiency of the hydraulic properties, showing different behaviors of the filters by varying the process parameters (such as filtration time and flux), so that the selection of the best configuration can be approached easier and faster. The process was optimized both in terms of volume of treated water and energy costs, providing an accurate procedure to improve the filter performance: an example of application is reported, where the volume of treated water can be increased by 43% reducing the 45.5% of the energy cost. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Quilitzsch M.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Osmond R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Krug M.,Inge GmbH | Heijnen M.,Inge GmbH | Ulbricht M.,University of Duisburg - Essen
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2016

A new process for surface selective graft modification of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with protective hydrogel layers was developed. The process uses a random copolymer of n-butylmethacrylate and N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate as a redox co-initiator (“macro-initiator”). Due to its molecular weight, the macro-initiator is completely rejected by the used Multibore® polyethersulfone UF membranes. Zwitterionic [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide and bifunctional N,N′-methylenebis(acrylamide) were used as monomers for “macro-initiator”-mediated, surface selective cross-linking polymerization toward anti-fouling hydrogel layers. The functionalization comprises two main steps; i) adsorption of the macro-initiator to the barrier layer surface of the membrane, e.g. during a short ultrafiltration; ii) grafting of the hydrogel layer after bringing the membrane in contact with a solution containing monomer(s) and a dissolved initiator (here ammonium persulfate) which is complementary to the co-initiator for a predetermined reaction time at room temperature. Hydrogel-grafted flat sheet and capillary UF membranes showed dextran sieving curves shifted to lower molecular weight values, increased total organic carbon rejection and improved anti-fouling behaviour in filtration tests with flower soil extract as model foulant. Furthermore, stability tests with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide solutions showed good chemical stability of graft-functionalized membranes. The obtained results are very promising for future applications, since the presented technique can be applied in ready-to-use membrane modules and capillary membranes easily. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 866.40K | Year: 2009

Membrane filtration has become a key technology for many environmental and industrial applications. Yet in spite of several cleaning options at hand, fouling phenomena such as cake layer formation and pore blocking still limit its performance. The objective of this project is to overcome these limits by developing, a high frequency back-pulsing device, integrating it into membrane filtration systems and transferring the knowledge gained to new, more competitive products and services offered by the SMEs involved. The key feature of the innovative back-pulse concept is a valve-less construction providing short response times, defined pulse shape and efficient membrane cleaning at minimal back-pulse flow. Selected membranes (polymeric and ceramic) and modules (capillary and flat sheet) will be tested. The integration of pulsing device and module is essential for successful scale up. It has to take into account inertia, viscosity and elasticity effects and gets prime attention in a dynamic modelling approach. The applications to be investigated range from the treatment of liquid residues of biomass-based power generation to treatment and reuse of process fluids and wastewater, including membrane bioreactor applications. The project addresses all critical points along the value chain from membrane supply to end-use. Its outputs include insight into the hydrodynamics of high frequency back-pulsing, novel back-pulsing devices, adapted membrane/module configurations and new applications for a new technique. The consortium includes 2 RTD partners focussing on technology (VITO), modelling (RWTH) and testing (FHNW), 4 SMEs manufacturing back-pulsing devices (Pirmatech), ceramic membranes (ATECH), polymeric membranes and filtration systems (Inge, A3), 1 SME as system integrator (Waterleau), 2 SME end-users (Agroservice, Bio-Energy Maasland) and one large end-user for demonstration (WSHD).


PubMed | Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tongji University, bbe moldaenke GmbH, Hydroisotop GmbH and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental sciences Europe | Year: 2016

The Taihu (Tai lake) region is one of the most economically prospering areas of China. Due to its location within this district of high anthropogenic activities, Taihu represents a drastic example of water pollution with nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate), organic contaminants and heavy metals. High nutrient levels combined with very shallow water create large eutrophication problems, threatening the drinking water supply of the surrounding cities. Within the international research project SIGN (SinoGerman Water Supply Network, www.water-sign.de), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), a powerful consortium of fifteen German partners is working on the overall aim of assuring good water quality from the source to the tap by taking the whole water cycle into account: The diverse research topics range from future proof strategies for urban catchment, innovative monitoring and early warning approaches for lake and drinking water, control and use of biological degradation processes, efficient water treatment technologies, adapted water distribution up to promoting sector policy by good governance. The implementation in China is warranted, since the leading Chinese research institutes as well as the most important local stakeholders, e.g. water suppliers, are involved.

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