Holland D.,Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. |
Reid T.K.,Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. |
Buchta P.,Inge GmbH
AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference and Exposition 2013
As requirements for wastewater reuse quality are becoming increasingly more difficult across the United States, conventional tertiary filtration is often unable to deliver the required performance and reliability necessary to meet the new objectives. As a result, tertiary filtration is often supplemented or replaced with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in the technology selection process. While some approaches couple the membranes with existing tertiary filtration systems, many applications directly apply clarified secondary effluent to the membranes. Unless the tertiary filters exist, a common perception holds that the required effluent quality can be achieved with membranes at a lower cost by eliminating the selection of intermediate tertiary filters. However, a strategy which employs tertiary filtration to precondition the water prior to membrane treatment offers distinct advantages, such as reduced operating costs, improved flexibility and increased reliability. Under most circumstances, the operation and maintenance (O&M) savings will offset the higher initial investment and yield a lower life cycle cost. To help determine the extent of the O&M reduction, this paper will compare operating parameters of a UF pilot system treating the same clarified secondary wastewater with and without the benefit of tertiary filtration. © 2013 American Water Works Association. Source
Crawled News Article
Whole grains in bread and other foods can add a healthy dose of vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber to our diets. At the American Chemical Society national meeting in Philadelphia Monday, researchers described how some lesser known bioactive grain compounds called benzoxazinoids, or BXs for short, could improve health through their immune-boosting properties. Inge S. Fomsgaard of Aarhus University talked about BXs during a session titled “Chemistry Behind Health Effects of Grains” organized by the Division of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. BXs are structurally similar to the hormone melatonin, the neurotransmitter serotonin, and the amino acid tryptophan. Scientists have known for a few decades that BXs help protect young cereal grain plants such as rye, wheat, and corn against weeds, insects, and diseases. But it wasn’t until 2009 that Fomsgaard’s group discovered that mature grains also contain BXs. Fomsgaard and her colleagues subsequently found that BXs survive food processing and that the composition and concentration of the compounds are enhanced via enzymatic processes during malting or baking. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics methods in rats, pigs, and people, the researchers have shown that BXs are taken up, distributed, and metabolized by mammals, Fomsgaard said. Her team has also found that a diet high in BXs enhances bacteria-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. These cytokines help boost the immune system. Now the team is working toward determining specific BXs that are active in the beneficial effects, which could be used to help prevent health problems such as obesity, allergies, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and certain cancers. For example, Fomsgaard’s team initiated a project, called RyeproC, after experiments in mice and humans by other groups showed that BXs in rye bran help suppress prostate cancer. In initial lab studies, the Aarhus team has uncovered seven BXs that enter prostate tissue, with HBOA-glc being the major metabolite detected. Fomsgaard and her colleagues have created the Bread & Breakfast project to take advantage of the compounds. As part of the project, Fomsgaard and her team are developing bread recipes and new food products with optimized BX content. “We don’t want to make BXs out to be new miracle compounds,” Fomsgaard said. “But we do want to exploit their benefits in ‘functional foods’ to support health and disease prevention.” “These results are fascinating and are helping to establish a whole new research area on the pharmacology and medicinal properties of BXs,” says Daniel G. Vassão of the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, whose group studies plant defense mechanisms, including ones involving BXs. “This research is certainly opening many doors and helping us to better understand not only our dietary exposure to BXs and how they affect our health, but also the differences and commonalities in both effects and mechanisms of action with other health-promoting phytochemicals.”
Naim R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev |
Epsztein R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev |
Felder A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev |
Heyer M.,Inge GmbH |
And 2 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology
In-line coagulation with aluminum or iron salts and ultrafiltration (UF) or microfiltration (MF) membranes is a valuable treatment option. The efficiency of the treatment is often evaluated by the achieved separation degree. That separation-oriented approach implies the coagulation with doses that are prohibitively high for many operations including the tertiary effluent treatment. The main purpose of the advanced wastewater treatment however is the retention of microorganisms and suspended solids, and that goal can be achieved even without coagulants. Thus the in-line coagulation can pursue the prevention or minimization of the irreversible fouling as an ultimate goal not related to the maximal separation of organic and inorganic impurities. Pilot experiments at conventional activated sludge (CAS) municipal wastewater treatment plant confirmed that the addition of 1 mg/L Fe3+ prevents the irreversible fouling as efficiently as the addition of 5 and 10 mg/L Fe3+. The economic impact of the suggested alteration is significant. Estimated operational expenses (OPEX) of a filtration at 60 LMH with 45 min cycles and 1 chemical - enhanced backwash per day is around 2 cents (€)/m3, almost a half of an OPEX of the separation-oriented treatment. Intermittent in-line coagulation down to first 2.5 min of 30 and 45 min filtration cycles is another cost-effective method to successfully depress the fouling. The success is explained by two-stage kinetics of a cake formation. At ripening stage, a layer of flocks restricted by a membrane gradually covers its surface and forms an initial dynamic cake. At operable stage, the cake entraps fresh solutes and prevents their contact with a membrane surface even without a coagulant. A superposition of two approaches reduces the consumption of ferric chloride coagulant by 94%. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 866.40K | Year: 2009
Membrane filtration has become a key technology for many environmental and industrial applications. Yet in spite of several cleaning options at hand, fouling phenomena such as cake layer formation and pore blocking still limit its performance. The objective of this project is to overcome these limits by developing, a high frequency back-pulsing device, integrating it into membrane filtration systems and transferring the knowledge gained to new, more competitive products and services offered by the SMEs involved. The key feature of the innovative back-pulse concept is a valve-less construction providing short response times, defined pulse shape and efficient membrane cleaning at minimal back-pulse flow. Selected membranes (polymeric and ceramic) and modules (capillary and flat sheet) will be tested. The integration of pulsing device and module is essential for successful scale up. It has to take into account inertia, viscosity and elasticity effects and gets prime attention in a dynamic modelling approach. The applications to be investigated range from the treatment of liquid residues of biomass-based power generation to treatment and reuse of process fluids and wastewater, including membrane bioreactor applications. The project addresses all critical points along the value chain from membrane supply to end-use. Its outputs include insight into the hydrodynamics of high frequency back-pulsing, novel back-pulsing devices, adapted membrane/module configurations and new applications for a new technique. The consortium includes 2 RTD partners focussing on technology (VITO), modelling (RWTH) and testing (FHNW), 4 SMEs manufacturing back-pulsing devices (Pirmatech), ceramic membranes (ATECH), polymeric membranes and filtration systems (Inge, A3), 1 SME as system integrator (Waterleau), 2 SME end-users (Agroservice, Bio-Energy Maasland) and one large end-user for demonstration (WSHD).
Crawled News Article
STOCKHOLM (Reuters) - An accidental breakthrough in a Stockholm laboratory 15 years ago could reap a fortune for the engineers who made it as long as they can win over some of the most demanding consumers: video gamers. Since John Elvesjo noticed a sensor tracking his eye movements in a lab experiment, the technology he developed with Henrik Eskilsson and Marten Skogo has helped disabled people use a computer by identifying where they are looking on the screen. The system uses invisible infra-red light to illuminate the eyes. Camera sensors capture the reflection off the retina and cornea to gauge where the eye is, and where it is looking. The mass-market potential looks almost limitless. Advertisers could adapt billboard images depending on where you rest your gaze. A car could alert you when you're about to fall asleep. Eskilsson says eye tracking will one day be found in all laptops, smartphones, tablets and automobiles. First up is the computer gaming hardware market. As a player looks to one part of the screen, the image will pan across the landscape and open up a new field of vision. Whether it catches on in the fiercely competitive gaming industry could depend on a deal struck this year between Eskilsson's company Tobii and Ubisoft, maker of blockbuster game "Assassin's Creed: Rogue". Tracking the player's gaze, the eyes of warrior Shay Patrick Cormac look across seascapes, forts and battlefields as he hunts assassins in North America during the Seven Years War in the PC version of the game. The success of this and other tie-ins is the biggest test yet for Tobii, which is making no revenue from supplying its technology for the deal. The aim is to get enough players interested to lure other gaming companies for deals that would bring in revenue. So far it has a handful of other tie-ins and Eskilsson said eye-tracking will have to reach at least 30 to 50 games before it can be regarded as mainstream. The prize is huge: Tobii's sales ambitions suggest an overall market for gaming eye-tracking sensors that could top $5 billion a year in revenue, about six times the firm's market value. "Eye-tracking makes it possible to create a more human device," said Eskilsson at Tobii's Stockholm headquarters, his laptop slipping into standby mode after noticing that he had looked away. "Not only by steering with your eyes, but with hands, voice and where you are looking. All put together." The company faces further hurdles before it can break into the far larger smartphone market. Fund manager Inge Heydorn at Sentat Asset Management in Stockholm compared Tobii's gaming-focused business to a hard-to-value stock option and said its sensors must become cheaper and smaller and consume less energy if they are to be used for smartphones packing far less battery power than laptops. "They don't know if they will get power consumption down. We don't know. Nobody knows," said Heydorn, who holds no Tobii stock. Tobii dominates the market for now - its $75 million in 2014 sales is five times that of its closest rival among about 20 eye-tracking technology firms - by selling sensors as disability aids and for behavioural studies in research. Keeping that edge may prove a challenge now that big technology firms, some of them Tobii customers, are looking at whether to develop their own technology. South Korean giant Samsung's latest phone reads the position of the user's face, something Eskilsson sees as a precursor to full-blown eye tracking. Tobii's deep-pocketed backers include Swedish group Investor, with a 19 percent stake, Intel Capital and early Spotify investor Northzone, both with roughly 8 percent. Expectations for profit growth are sky-high and Tobii's share price has almost tripled since its April listing. The company is investing about 150 million Swedish crowns ($18 million) annually to expand in PC gaming. "It's going to take a couple of years for that to become a volume market. It's not 10 years away, but within a couple of years," said Eskilsson. Hans Otterling at third-biggest shareholder Northzone said Tobii was "totally capable" of carrying on by itself, without being swallowed by a bigger company. He said its value lay in the range of areas where eye-tracking may be applied. "Imagine a surgeon, his hands free, able to steer things with his eyes. There is really just your imagination setting the limits," he said.