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Adachi-ku, Japan

Kadokura H.,Tokyu Research Institute Inc. | Sekizawa A.,Tokyo University of Science | Takahashi W.,ING Corporation
Fire and Materials | Year: 2012

Recent years have seen an increasing number of deep subway stations, and many of the existing stations have been made progressively barrier free. This has been accompanied by the installation of more and more escalators, and often existing stairways have been converted to escalators. This has resulted in fewer egress paths in an emergency case. Considering this background, firstly, a crowd walking experiment using stopped escalators was conducted in order to get the base data, for example, on obtained walking speed, for the parameters in the evacuation simulation of several fire scenarios in a typical subway station. Secondly, a smoke movement simulation of the metro fire scenarios was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the smoke model in a two-layer zone model. Finally, based on the results of the evacuation and smoke simulations of the chosen subway station, we examined the availability and the issues of evacuation using stopped escalators. As a result, it was found that the evacuation potential of passengers on a platform is considerably improved if escalators are permitted in addition to stairs for emergency evacuation. Several issues to be considered for the safe operation of escalators are identified. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Disclosed herein is a 3D distance measurement system. The 3D distance measurement system includes an image projection device for projecting a pattern image including one or more patterns on a target object, and an image acquisition device for acquiring a projected pattern image, analyzing the projected pattern image using the patterns, and then reconstructing a 3D image. Each of the patterns includes one or more preset identification factors so that the patterns can be uniquely recognized, and each of the identification factors is one of a point, a line, and a surface, or a combination of two or more of a point, a line, and a surface. The 3D distance measurement system is advantageous in that it reconstructs a 3D image using a single pattern image, thus greatly improving processing speed and the utilization of a storage space and enabling a 3D image to be accurately reconstructed.


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