Design of a pragmatic approach to evaluate the effectiveness of concurrent treatment for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures : Rationale, aims and organization of a Japanese Osteoporosis Intervention Trial (JOINT) initiated by the Research Group of Adequate Treatment of Osteoporosis (A-TOP)
Kuroda T.,Public Health Research Foundation |
Miyakawa N.,Public Health Research Foundation |
Fujinawa N.,ICros Co. |
Tanzawa K.,ING Corporation |
And 21 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2011
The aim of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent future fractures. Although concurrent treatment has been used very frequently for osteoporosis in clinical practice, there are no data on accurate and verified effectiveness of concurrent treatment for fracture prevention in patients with osteoporosis. To clarify the clinical usefulness of concurrent treatment, the Japan Osteoporosis Society has authorized the establishment of the A-TOP (Adequate Treatment of Osteoporosis) research group. The objective of this research is to establish a design for a clinical trial to prove whether concurrent treatment using both alfacalcidol (1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol) and alendronate is more effective as compared to treatment using alendronate alone in terms of fracture prevention. The present study was named JOINT (Japanese Osteoporosis Intervention Trial) and is based on a method using national, prospective, randomized, open-labeled, blinded endpoints focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis with a high risk for fracture. The patients were mainly selected by practitioners and allocated randomly by a central registration system into two groups, of which one received 5 mg/day of alendronate alone, and the other received 1 μg/day of 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (alfacalcidol) in addition to the alendronate. The endpoints focused primarily on fracture prevention, and the patients' quality of life (QOL) and change in body height, as well as adherence and the adverse events of the treatments were evaluated secondarily. To obtain sufficient statistical power in the events during a 2-year observation period, the patients who are expected to have higher risk were selected to participate in this study, and it was decided that the final plan would involve 890 patients per group (two-sided alpha = 0.05, power = 0.8). Data collection began in November 2003. Correspondence regarding the registration of the investigator and the progress of the study was conducted through a web system from the Public Health Research Foundation to practitioners. © 2010 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer.
Chojyu No Sato Co., Zenshin Co. and Ing Co. | Date: 2011-07-07
The present invention relates to provide a scrub soap and a method for manufacturing the same. A method for manufacturing a scrub soap includes preparing a scrub agent consisting of a shirasu and a hollow shirasu having a different average particle diameter each other, preparing a fatty acid composition consisting of at least one kind of fatty acid, preparing an alkali aqueous solution by dissolving at least one kind of alkali metal hydroxide of which molar ratio to at least one kind of fatty acid is not more than 1, and preparing a soap basis material by mixing the scrub agent, the alkali aqueous solution and the fatty acid composition.
Kadokura H.,Tokyu Research Institute Inc. |
Sekizawa A.,Tokyo University of Science |
Takahashi W.,ING Co.
Fire and Materials | Year: 2012
Recent years have seen an increasing number of deep subway stations, and many of the existing stations have been made progressively barrier free. This has been accompanied by the installation of more and more escalators, and often existing stairways have been converted to escalators. This has resulted in fewer egress paths in an emergency case. Considering this background, firstly, a crowd walking experiment using stopped escalators was conducted in order to get the base data, for example, on obtained walking speed, for the parameters in the evacuation simulation of several fire scenarios in a typical subway station. Secondly, a smoke movement simulation of the metro fire scenarios was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the smoke model in a two-layer zone model. Finally, based on the results of the evacuation and smoke simulations of the chosen subway station, we examined the availability and the issues of evacuation using stopped escalators. As a result, it was found that the evacuation potential of passengers on a platform is considerably improved if escalators are permitted in addition to stairs for emergency evacuation. Several issues to be considered for the safe operation of escalators are identified. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mori K.,ING Corporation |
Meng Z.,ING Corporation |
Kikuchi H.,Keio University |
Kataoka Y.,Keio University |
And 6 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2010
Radioactive materials (sources) are managed by bookkeeping and stocktaking. The radiation protection section staffs should check the sources manually. Annual effective dose concerning stocktaking of them are estimated at some mSv concerning fingers. A radio frequency identification (RFID) tagÊ4;s absorbed dose is estimated at some dozen Gy. RFID for stocktaking automatically was devised. Radiation effects on the communication performance of RFID tags were investigated by using response times and read ranges as indices. The RFID system was composed of a computer, a detector, and transponders (tag) consisting of an integrated circuit chip and an antenna. The tag is joined to the source for identification. The tags were irradiated at doses between 5 and 5,000 Gy by an X-ray irradiator. The response times and the read ranges were tracked from 40 to 23,200 min after irradiation. Relative read ranges fluctuated between 0.9 and 1.1 in the dose region less than 2,000 Gy, but fluctuated greatly in the dose region beyond 2,000 Gy. Malfunctioning tags appeared from 3,000 Gy, and all tags malfunctioned in the dose region over 4,500 Gy. The threshold dose leading to malfunction was determined to be 2,100 Gy. Time variation of relative read ranges was classified into four patterns. The pattern shifted from pattern 1 to 4 when the dose was increased. The relative read ranges lengthened in pattern 1. The relative read rages were approximately 1.0 in pattern 2. The read ranges tentatively shortened, then recovered in pattern 3. The tags malfunctioned in pattern 4. Once the tags malfunctioned, they never recovered their performance. Radiation enhances or deteriorates communication performance depending on dosage. Tags can spontaneously recover from radiation deterioration. The time variation of the read ranges can be illustrated by enhancement, deterioration, and recovery. The mechanism of four patterns is explained based on the variation of the frequency harmonization strength and activation voltage by irradiation. The annual effective dose of radiation protection section staffs can be reduced considerably. © 2010 Health Physics Society.
IN G Co. | Date: 2012-05-17
Disclosed herein is a 3D distance measurement system. The 3D distance measurement system includes an image projection device for projecting a pattern image including one or more patterns on a target object, and an image acquisition device for acquiring a projected pattern image, analyzing the projected pattern image using the patterns, and then reconstructing a 3D image. Each of the patterns includes one or more preset identification factors so that the patterns can be uniquely recognized, and each of the identification factors is one of a point, a line, and a surface, or a combination of two or more of a point, a line, and a surface. The 3D distance measurement system is advantageous in that it reconstructs a 3D image using a single pattern image, thus greatly improving processing speed and the utilization of a storage space and enabling a 3D image to be accurately reconstructed.