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Vo B.,Ton Duc Thang University | Nguyen D.,Ton Duc Thang University | Nguyen T.-L.,Center for Information Technology
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2015

Graph mining has practical applications in many areas such as molecular substructure explorer, web link analysis, fraud detection, outlier detection, chemical molecules, and social networks. Frequent subgraph mining is an important topic of graph mining. The mining process is to find all frequent subgraphs over a collection of graphs. Numerous algorithms for mining frequent subgraphs have been proposed; most of them, however, used sequential strategies which are not scalable on large datasets. In this paper, we propose a parallel algorithm to overcome this weakness. Firstly, the multi-core processor architecture is introduced; the way to apply it to data mining is also discussed. Secondly, we present the gSpan algorithm as the basic framework of our algorithm. Finally, we develop an efficient algorithm for mining frequent subgraphs relied on parallel computing. The performance and scalability of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through extensive experiments on two datasets, chemical and compound. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Filho O.S.S.,Center for Information Technology | Andres F.,Japan National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
7th International ACM Conference on Management of Computational and CollEctive Intelligence in Digital EcoSystems, MEDES 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper presents a proposal of a collaborative model for a supply chain of a blood bank, which uses the concept of Collective Intelligence to integrate the various actors, which include donors, hospitals, clinics and government. They need to share information about: (i) types of blood in supply channel, (ii) production and inventory needs of the Blood Center process; (iii) blood component needs in the demand channel, and, as well as, (iv) financial resources from supporting entities of society, like government. The paper reviews the aspects of the blood supply chain of a Blood Center, describing the aspects of theinterrelated customer-supplier relationship. Then the blood components related to forecasting demanded by downstream of the chain are introduced. We shortly discuss its impact on the inventory levels of the Blood Center, and the third part includes a brief discussion on mechanisms to make this chain a more collaborative Ecosystem with the use of Collective Intelligence. © 2015 ACM.

News Article | January 20, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Nest may be the poster child for the so-called Internet of Things, but as it turns out, even one of the most popular connected devices—owned by Google’s parent company Alphabet, no less—isn't free from the sorts of security flaws plaguing other smart devices. Researchers at Princeton University have found that, until recently, Alphabet’s popular Nest thermostat was leaking the zip codes of its users over the internet. This data was transmitted unencrypted, or in the clear, meaning that anyone sniffing traffic could have intercepted it, according to the researchers. The researchers also studied several other smart devices, including the Sharx security camera, a PixStar smart photoframe, and Samsung’s SmartThings Hub. The goal of their research wasn’t to find specific bugs in these devices, but to determine what information was being leaked when the devices communicated with their servers in the cloud. Sarthak Grover, a PhD student at the Center for Information Technology Policy (CITP) at Princeton, and fellow Roya Ensafi reached out to Nest to report the bug, and said that the company “promptly” fixed it. The researchers did not disclose whether they reached out to other companies as well. Grover presented some of his and Ensafi’s findings during a conference put together by the Federal Trade Commission last week in Washington, D.C. Of the devices studied by the Princeton researchers, most leaked at least some kind of private information, meaning that anyone who can sniff traffic travelling over the internet “may be able to find out what you’re currently doing inside your home,” said Grover during the conference. Apart from the Nest, the researchers found that the Sharx security camera transmits video feeds in the clear, allowing pretty much anyone with access to the owner’s network to intercept and watch them over the internet. As for the PixStar Digital Photoframe, the smart frame is designed to pull pictures from your Facebook account, but downloads them unencrypted, so someone sniffing your connection could steal the pictures, according to the researchers. The researchers’ findings paint a grim reality. Some smart devices have such little computing power that they couldn’t perform the necessary encryption processes even if their creators wanted them to, and they’re all designed to send information out on the internet. “What we have over here is a pretty a bad combination. You have hardware that is incapable, and information that’s always being sent to the cloud,” Grover said. Their main takeaway is that Internet of Things manufacturers need to start putting security first—or perhaps regulators should set minimum mandatory security standards for manufacturers—and that, at least for now, consumers should “be afraid.” Update, Jan. 20: Slides presented by the researchers stated that incoming weather updates contained "location information of the home and weather station in the clear." However, Nest contacted Motherboard to clarify that "the geolocation coordinates are for their remote weather stations, not our customers' homes, and that "the only user information that is contained in the requests is zip code." The researchers confirmed this was the case, and Motherboard has updated both the article and headline accordingly.

News Article
Site: www.technologyreview.com

Our annual list of 35 innovators under the age of 35 inevitably arouses this objection: “Do you really believe older people aren’t innovative?” Of course they are. We write about the young because we want to introduce you to promising researchers and entrepreneurs. But older people are as capable of new thinking as young ones. Below are seven innovators over the age of 70, still working. 1. Shirley Ann Jackson, 70, is the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. A theoretical physicist, she was the first African-American woman to be awarded a doctorate from MIT, and she is widely admired for making Rensselaer into a major center of research. She has served on a bewildering number of public committees, including President Obama’s Intelligence Advisory Board, where she is cochair, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which she chaired from 1995 to 1999. 2. Research conducted and startups founded by the computer scientist Michael Stonebraker, who is 71, led directly to the relational databases used everywhere today. He worked for many years at UC Berkeley and in Silicon Valley; and as an adjunct professor at MIT and an entrepreneur, he continues to cofound a new company every couple of years, commercializing his breakthroughs in database management. In 2014, he received the Turing Award. 3. The philosopher Derek Parfit, born in 1942, published Reasons and Persons in 1984 to immense acclaim. Using thought experiments borrowed from science fiction, including speculations about teleportation, the book exploded ideas about the persistence of identity and our duties to future generations. There followed a 37-year near silence, while a monumental unfinished work was circulated in manuscript amongst philosophers and reading groups. In 2011, Parfit finally published On What Matters. It reconciles rules-based, consequentialist, and contractualist conceptions of morality, which Parfit says are “climbing the same mountain on different sides.” 4. Matthew Carter, 78, is one of the most prolific type designers in history. More than anyone else, Carter is responsible for translating classic type to digital uses. His fonts include Georgia, designed to be legible even on very small or low-­resolution screens and included in the “core fonts for the Web” bundled with Internet Explorer 4.0. His greatest typefaces, including Miller, Verdana, and Walker, are displayed in the permanent collection of MOMA. 5. Donald Knuth, also 78, is a professor emeritus at Stanford University and the author of the influential multivolume The Art of Computer Programming. It was initially conceived as a single book of 12 chapters in 1962, but Knuth retired from teaching in 1990 in order to complete the series, whose Volume 4, Fascicle 6 (on “Satisfiability”), was released in December of last year. 6. The environmental microbiologist Rita Colwell, born in 1934, was the director of the National Science Foundation from 1998 to 2004 and is now a professor at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University, chairman emeritus of Canon U.S. Life Sciences, and CEO of CosmosID, a genomics company using data analysis to identify microörganisms for diagnostics, public health, and drug discovery. In 2006, Colwell was awarded the National Medal of Science. 7. Ruzena Bajcsy is a roboticist who is still actively publishing at the age of 83. Born and educated in Czechoslovakia (where the Nazis killed most of her relatives, orphaning her at 11), she was a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, led the Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate of the National Science Foundation with its $500 million budget, and is today a professor at UC Berkeley, where she is also director emerita of the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society. Her current research focuses on AI, computational biology, and biosystems. Last year, she cowrote three papers about using Microsoft Kinect to improve the lives of older adults or people with muscular dystrophy.

Guzzetta G.,Center for Information Technology | Poletti P.,Center for Information Technology | Poletti P.,Bocconi University | Merler S.,Center for Information Technology | Manfredi P.,University of Pisa
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2016

The impact of varicella vaccination on the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) critically depends on the mechanism of immunological boosting, through which reexposures to varicella-zoster virus are thought to reduce the individual risk of HZ development. However, the qualitative and quantitative dynamics of this process are largely unknown. Consequently, mathematical models evaluating immunization strategies need to rely on theoretical assumptions. Available varicella-zoster virus models can be classified in 3 main families according to the postulated effect of exogenous boosting: 1) progressive accumulation of immunity following repeated reexposures; 2) partial protection that wanes over time; or 3) full but temporary immunity against HZ. In this work, we review and compare quantitative predictions from the 3 modeling approaches regarding the effect of varicella immunization on HZ. All models predict a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively heterogeneous, transient increase of HZ incidence. In particular, novel estimates from the progressive immunity model predict the largest increase in natural HZ and the largest incidence of HZ cases from reactivation of the vaccine strain, which in the long term will likely outnumber prevaccination numbers. Our results reinforce the idea that a better understanding of HZ pathogenesis is required before further mass varicella immunization programs are set out. © 2016 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

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