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Farber H.J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Batsell R.R.,Rice University | Silveira E.A.,Information Systems | Calhoun R.T.,Texas Childrens Health Plan | Giardino A.P.,Baylor College of Medicine
Chest | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases breathing problems of children. Texas Children's Health Plan is a Managed Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) managed care provider. The aim of this study is to determine associations among tobacco smoke exposure, asthma prevalence, and asthma health-care utilization. METHODS: Texas Children's Health Plan conducts an annual survey of members who have a physician visit. Questions were added to the survey in March 2010 about asthma and tobacco smoke exposure. Survey results for children < 18 years of age were matched to health plan claims data for the 12 months following the date of the physician visit. RESULTS: A total of 22,470 parents of unique members/patients from birth to < 18 years of age participated in the survey. More whites than African Americans or Hispanics report that the child's mother is a smoker (19.5% vs 9.1% and vs 2.3%, respectively; P <.001). Compared with children whose mother does not smoke, parent report of asthma diagnosis and claims for dispensing of short-acting beta agonist medication are greater if the mother is a smoker (adjusted OR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.03-1.40] and 1.24 [95% CI, 1.08-1.42], respectively). In contrast to Medicaid, in which there are no out-of-pocket costs, the CHIP line of business requires copays for ED visits. ED visits are influenced by maternal smoking only in the CHIP line of business (adjusted OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.69-11.44). CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking increases risk for asthma diagnosis and prescription of asthma quick relief medication. Maternal smoking predicted asthma-related ED visits only for the CHIP line of business. © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Donahue J.G.,Epidemology Research Center | Kieke B.A.,Epidemology Research Center | Gargiullo P.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jumaan A.O.,Program for Appropriate Technology in Health | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Objectives. We performed a case-control study to determine if participants with herpes zoster had fewer contacts with persons with varicella or zoster, and with young children, to explore the hypothesis that exposure to persons with varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in "immune boosting." Methods. Participants were patients of the multispecialty Marshfield Clinic in Wisconsin. We identified patients aged 40 to 79 years with a new diagnosis of zoster from August 2000 to July 2005. We frequency matched control participants to case participants for age. We confirmed diagnoses by chart review and assessed exposures by interview. Results. Interviews were completed by 633 of 902 eligible case participants <70.2%) and 655 of 1149 control participants (57.0%). The number of varicella contacts was not associated with zoster; there was no trend even at the highest exposure level (3 or more contacts). Similarly, there was no association with exposure to persons with zoster or to children, or with workplace exposures. Conclusions. Although exposure to VZV in our study was relatively low, the absence of a relationship with zoster reflects the uncertain influence of varicella circulation on zoster epidemioloqy.

Kar A.K.,Indian Institute of Management | Pani A.K.,Information Systems
Journal of Enterprise Information Management | Year: 2014

Purpose – The application of theories on group decision support is yet to be explored extensively in supplier selection literature, although the literature in both domains is extremely rich, in isolation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of group decision support theories for supplier selection. Design/methodology/approach – The row geometric mean method (RGMM) of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used in this study for the prioritization of group preferences under consensus. A case study was conducted to test the theories of consensual group decision making and compare it with other approaches based on AHP. Findings – The study establishes that the application of decision support theories for group decision making can improve the supplier selection process. Findings further imply that RGMM is more effective than eigen value method, for group decision making under consensus. Research limitations/implications – Methodologically, the study highlights the greater regularity in outcome of group decision making, vis-a` -vis individual decision making, for the same decisionmaking context. Also, it highlights how RGMM is more effective since it preserves reciprocal properties and diversity in preferences better. Practical implications – The study establishes that firms can improve supplier selection processes by leveraging on the collective expertise of a group rather than depending on individual decisionmaking expertise. Originality/value – This study explores the application of different theories based on AHP for consensual group decision making. It compares different approaches based on AHP and establishes that RGMM is a superior approach for supplier selection. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Turoff M.,Information Systems
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2011

The BP disaster in the Gulf of Mexico has led to a large number of articles in various news sources attempting to report on the reasons for and consequences of this disaster. We use this literature as a basis for exposing the possible systemic problems in BP that would explain this catastrophe and we offer some conclusions as to what designers should strive to do whenever possible to counter these difficulties. There are a large number of well known problems of organizational structure, behavior, and communications. It is entirely possible that these problems have become more pervasive and common in organizations than we would expect. The enormity of these issues may also contribute to the difficulty of designing and implementing effective Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) capable of dealing with all the tasks that such a system must be able to address. © 2012 IEEE.

Gupta A.,Information Systems | Goel L.,Information Systems
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is inspired by the intelligent behavior of the bees to optimize their search for food resources. It is a lately developed algorithm in Swarm Intelligence (SI) that outperforms many of the established and widely used algorithms like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) under SI. ABC is being applied in diverse areas to improve performance. Many hybrids of ABC have evolved over the years to overcome its weaknesses and better suit applications. In this paper ABC is being applied to the field of Face Recognition, which remains largely unexplored in context of ABC algorithm. The paper describes the challenges and methodology used to adapt ABC to Face Recognition. In this paper, features are extracted by first applying Gabor Filter. On the features obtained, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) is applied to reduce their dimensionality. A modified version of ABC is then used on the feature vectors to search for best match to test image in the given database. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

Pendharkar P.C.,Information Systems
2012 25th IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering: Vision for a Greener Future, CCECE 2012 | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose three lower bounds to the constrained task allocation problem (CTAP). These three lower bounds are: a heuristic lower bound (HLB), a linear programming relaxation (LPR) lower bound and a lagrangean relaxation with subgradient optimization (LRSO) based lower bound. We empirically compare the performance of these three bounds under different task executing times. Our experiments with real-world CTAPs indicate that the LPR provides efficient and tight lower bounds for the CTAP. © 2012 IEEE.

Pendharkar P.C.,Information Systems
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose a software defect prediction model learning problem (SDPMLP) where a classification model selects appropriate relevant inputs, from a set of all available inputs, and learns the classification function. We show that the SDPMLP is a combinatorial optimization problem with factorial complexity, and propose two hybrid exhaustive search and probabilistic neural network (PNN), and simulated annealing (SA) and PNN procedures to solve it. For small size SDPMLP, exhaustive search PNN works well and provides an (all) optimal solution(s). However, for large size SDPMLP, the use of exhaustive search PNN approach is not pragmatic and only the SA-PNN allows us to solve the SDPMLP in a practical time limit. We compare the performance of our hybrid approaches with traditional classification algorithms and find that our hybrid approaches perform better than traditional classification algorithms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pendharkar P.C.,Information Systems
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

We consider game-theoretic principles for design of cooperative and competitive (non-cooperative self-interested) multi-agent systems. Using economic concepts of tâtonnement and economic core, we show that cooperative multi-agent systems should be designed in games with dominant strategies that may lead to social dilemmas. Non-cooperative multi-agent systems, on the other hand, should be designed for games with no clear dominant strategies and high degree of problem complexity. Further, for non-cooperative multi-agent systems, the number of learning agents should be carefully managed so that solutions in the economic core can be obtained. We provide experimental results for the design of cooperative and non-cooperative MAS from telecommunication and manufacturing industries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kropp W.W.,Information Systems | Lein J.K.,Ohio University
Environmental Practice | Year: 2013

Encouraging a more sustainable urban system requires a reexamination of urban development goals and polices to acknowledge the role that cities play in influencing global environmental change. However, sustainability remains a broadly defined concept that has been applied to mean everything from environmental protection and social cohesion to economic growth and neighborhood design. To guide sustainability initiatives and assess progress toward more sustainable development patterns, there is a need to place this concept into a more functional decision-centric context where change in development proposals can be evaluated in a manner more consistent with future as well as present societal needs. To date, sustainability is assessed within the rubric established by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design system or the Sustainable Sites Initiative. These systems, while useful, are ill-suited to the multifaceted, complex relationships that characterize sustainability. In this study, the problem of sustainability assessment was examined within an urban setting by using a method that coupled scenario analysis with spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). The integration of a spatial MCDA model for sustainable development with scenario planning resulted in an interpretation of sustainability that is more appropriate for local conditions and useful when exploring sustainability's semantic uncertainties, particularly those alternate perspectives that influence future urban patterns. Environmental Practice 15:133-146 (2013) Copyright © National Association of Environmental Professionals 2013Â.

Pendharkar P.C.,Information Systems | Rodger J.A.,Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Expert Systems | Year: 2012

Distributed problem-solving (DPS) systems use a framework of human organizational notions and principles of intelligent systems to solve complex problems. Human organizational notions are used to decompose a complex problem into sub-problems that can be solved using intelligent systems. The solutions of these sub-problems are combined to solve the original complex problem. In this paper, we propose a DPS system for probabilistic estimation of software development effort. Using a real-world software engineering dataset, we compare the performance of the DPS system with a neural network (NN) and show that the performance of the DPS system is equal to or better than that of the NN with the additional benefits of modularity, probabilistic estimates, greater interpretability, flexibility and capability to handle incomplete input data. © 2011 Wiley Publishing Ltd.

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