Silver Spring, MD, United States
Silver Spring, MD, United States

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Rajaraman P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Doody M.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Yu C.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Preston D.L.,Hirosoft International | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine risks of cancer incidence and mortality among U.S. radiation technologists performing or assisting with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A nationwide prospective cohort of 90,957 radiologic technologists, who responded to a 1994-1998 survey that collected information on whether they had ever worked with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures, was followed through completion of a subsequent cohort survey during 2003-2005 (for cancer incidence) or December 31, 2008 (for cancer mortality). Sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated by use of Cox proportional hazards models for incidence and mortality from all cancers other than nonmelanoma skin cancer and for specific cancer outcomes in participants who reported ever performing fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures compared with technologists who never performed these procedures. RESULTS. The analysis showed an approximately twofold increased risk of brain cancer mortality (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.48-4.40) and modest elevations in incidence of melanoma (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61) and in breast cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32) but not mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.69-1.66) among technologists who performed fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures compared with those who never performed these procedures. Although there was a small suggestive increase in incidence of all cancers combined, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.17), mortality from all cancers combined, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was not elevated (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88-1.14). We similarly observed no elevated risk of cancers of the thyroid, skin other than melanoma, prostate, lung, or colon and rectum or of leukemia that was not chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who performed fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. CONCLUSION. We observed elevated risks of brain cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma among technologists who performed fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Although exposure to low-dose radiation is one possible explanation for these increased risks, these results may also be due to chance or unmeasured confounding by nonradiation risk factors. Our results must be confirmed in other studies, preferably with individual radiation dose data. © American Roentgen Ray Society.


Howlader N.,Control Data | Chen V.W.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Ries L.A.G.,Control Data | Ries L.A.G.,RiesSearch LLC | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program registries began collecting new data items, known as site-specific factors (SSFs), related to breast cancer treatment, prediction, and prognosis under the Collaborative Stage version 2 (CSv2) Data Collection System for cases diagnosed in 2010. The objectives of this report are to: 1) assess the completeness of the new SSFs and discuss their limitations and 2) discuss key changes in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging between the 6th and 7th editions.Methods: We used data from the 18 SEER population-based registries (SEER-18), which included 71,983 women diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.Results: Of the 18 SSFs examined in this study, 6 SSFs were more than 75% complete. Information on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), was available for more than 90% of the invasive breast cancer cases. These data are required to categorize the distinct subtypes of breast cancer. The majority of cases also had information on other prognostic factors such as Bloom-Richardson score/grade (83%) and the size of invasive component in the tumor (76%). As a result of changes in staging criteria, nearly 10% of cases categorized as stage IIA according to the 6th edition of the AJCC staging manual were downstaged to stage IB under the 7th edition.Conclusions: The Collaborative Stage data collection system enables registries to collect current, relevant, and standardized data items that are consistent with the evolving view of breast cancer as a heterogeneous disease. © 2014 American Cancer Society.


PubMed | New York University, Victoria University of Melbourne, U.S. National Cancer Institute, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and 21 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN) totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (50, >50 nmol/L) for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713) and controls (n = 878). The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830). Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186), LRP2 (rs4668123), CYP24A1 (rs2762932), GC (rs2282679), and CUBN (rs1810205) genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037), but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.


PubMed | HiroSoft International Corporation, University of Minnesota, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Kaiser Permanente and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Occupational and environmental medicine | Year: 2015

Although fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIP) have provided major advances in the treatment of various common diseases, radiation exposures associated with these procedures may cause adverse health effects in workers. We assess risk of circulatory disease incidence and mortality in medical radiation workers performing FGIP.A US nationwide prospective cohort study of 90,957 radiologic technologists who completed a cohort survey during 1994-1998 was followed until completion of a subsequent survey during 2003-2005 for circulatory disease incidence, or until 31 December 2008 for mortality. Incidence analyses were restricted to the 63,482 technologists who completed both the second survey (1994-1998) and the third survey (2003-2005). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess adjusted HR and 95% CIs for mortality from all causes, all circulatory diseases, all heart diseases, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, acute myocardial infarction and hypertension in participants who reported ever performing FGIP compared to technologists who never performed FGIP procedures. Adjusted HRs were calculated for self-reported hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction.We observed a 34% increase in stroke incidence (HR=1.34, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.64) in technologists who performed FGIP compared to those who never performed these procedures. Mortality from stroke was also modestly elevated, although not statistically significant (HR=1.22, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.73). We observed no statistically significant excess risks of incidence or mortality from any other outcome evaluated.Our finding of elevated risk of stroke in workers performing FGIP needs to be confirmed in studies with individual radiation dose data, but nonetheless underlines the need to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable without compromising key diagnostic information.


Schiffman M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Vaughan L.M.,BD Diagnostics | Raine-Bennett T.R.,Kaiser Permanente | Castle P.E.,Yeshiva University | And 5 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2015

Background In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. Methods The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0 years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1187 with < CIN2. Adjusting for sampling, we computed 3-year cumulative CIN3+ risks for each Onclarity typing channel, using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results The 3-year CIN3+ risk for all HC2-positive women with ASC-US was 5.2%; this establishes the "benchmark" risk for colposcopic referral. Hierarchically, 3-year cumulative risks for each typing channel were 16.0% for HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.3% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. Discussion ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1 year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Lewis D.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Chen H.-S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Midthune D.N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Cronin K.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program collects and publishes population-based cancer incidence data from registries covering approximately 28% (seer.cancer.gov/registries/data.html) of the US population. SEER incidence rates are released annually in April from data submitted the prior November. The time needed to identify, consolidate, clean, and submit data requires the latest diagnosis year included to be 3 years before release. Approaches, opportunities, and cautions for an earlier release of data based on a February submission are described. METHODS First, cases submitted in February for the latest diagnosis year represented 92% to 98% of those in the following November submission. A reporting delay model was used to statistically adjust counts in recent diagnosis years for cases projected in the future. February submissions required larger adjustment factors than November submissions. Second, trends were checked to assess the validity. RESULTS Most cancer sites had similar annual percent change (APC) trends for February and November 2013. Male colon and rectum cancer and female lung and bronchus cancer showed an acceleration in declining APC trends only in February. Average annual percent change (AAPC) trends for the 2 submissions were similar for all sites. CONCLUSIONS For the first time, preliminary 2012 incidence rates, based on February submissions, are provided. An accelerated decline starting in 2008 for male colon and rectum cancer rates and male lung cancer rates did not persist when 2012 data were added. An earlier release of SEER data is possible. Caution must be exercised when one is interpreting changing trends. Use of the more conservative AAPC is advised. Cancer 2015;121:2053-2062. © 2015 American Cancer Society.


Wiggins C.L.,University of New Mexico | Harlan L.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Nelson H.E.,University of New Mexico | Stevens J.L.,Information Management Systems Incorporated | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Imatinib is a highly effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001 and thereafter rapidly became front-line therapy. This study characterized the prevailing chronic myeloid leukemia therapies in the United States and assessed the impact of imatinib on chronic myeloid leukemia survival and mortality rates in the general population. Methods: Investigators with the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care study reviewed medical records and queried physicians regarding therapy for 423 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia diagnosed in 2003 who were randomly selected from cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Characteristics associated with the receipt of imatinib were documented, as were survival differences between those who received imatinib and those who did not. Population-based data were used to assess chronic myeloid leukemia survival and mortality rates in time periods before and after the introduction of imatinib. Results: Imatinib was administered to 76% of patients in the Patterns of Care study. Imatinib use was inversely associated with age: 90%, 75%, and 46% for patients ages 20 to 59 years, 60 to 79 years, and 80 or more years, respectively. Elderly patients who received imatinib survived significantly longer than those who did not. After adjusting for age, imatinib use did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, presence of comorbid conditions, or insurance status. Overall, chronic myeloid leukemia survival in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population improved, and mortality in the United States declined dramatically during the period when imatinib became widely available; these improvements diminished with increasing age. Conclusion: Age disparities in treatment with imatinib likely contributed to worse survival for many elderly patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | University of Minnesota, Vanderbilt University, Information Management Systems Inc., Hirosoft International and U.S. National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Occupational and environmental medicine | Year: 2015

The number of nuclear medicine procedures has increased substantially over the past several decades, with uncertain health risks to the medical workers who perform them. We estimated risks of incidence and mortality from cancer and circulatory disease associated with performing procedures involving the use of radionuclides.From a nationwide cohort of 90,955 US radiologic technologists who completed a mailed questionnaire during 1994-1998, 22,039 reported ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, brachytherapy, radioactive iodine therapy, or other radionuclide therapy. We calculated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for incidence (through 2003-2005) and mortality (through 2008) associated with performing these procedures.Ever (versus never) performing radionuclide procedures was not associated with risks for most end points examined. However, we observed increased risks for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.66) with ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, for myocardial infarction incidence (HR=1.37, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.70), all-cause mortality (HR=1.10, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) and all-cancer mortality (HR=1.20, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.43) with ever performing brachytherapy, and for mortality from all causes (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.30), breast cancer (HR=2.68, 95% CI 1.10 to 6.51), and myocardial infarction (HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.04) with ever performing other radionuclide therapy procedures (excluding brachytherapy and radioactive iodine); increasing risks were also observed with greater frequency of performing these procedures, particularly before 1980.The modest health risks among radiologic technologists performing procedures using radionuclides require further examination in studies with individual dose estimates, more detailed information regarding types of procedures performed and radionuclides used, and longer follow-up.


PubMed | Louisiana State University, Information Management Systems Incorporated, University of Southern California, Rutgers University and National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer | Year: 2016

This article presents a first look at rates and trends for cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program diagnosed through 2013 using the February 2015 submission, and a validation of rates and trends from the February 2014 submission using the subsequent November 2014 submission. To the authors knowledge, this is the second time SEER has published trends based on the early February submission. Three new cancer sites were added: cervix, thyroid, and liver/ intrahepatic bile duct.A reporting delay model adjusted for the undercount of cases, which is substantially larger for the February than the subsequent November submission, was used. Joinpoint regression methodology was used to assess trends. Delay-adjusted rates and trends were checked to assess validity between the February and November 2014 submissions.The validation of rates and trends from the February and November 2014 submissions demonstrated even better agreement than the previously reported comparison between the February and November 2013 submissions, thereby affording additional confidence that the delay-adjusted February submission data can be used to produce valid estimates of incidence trends. Trends for cases diagnosed through 2013 revealed more rapid declines in female colon and rectal cancer and prostate cancer. A plateau in female melanoma trends and a slowing of the increases in thyroid cancer and male liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancer trends were observed.Analysis of early cancer data submissions can provide a preliminary indication of differences in incidence trends with an additional year of data. Although the delay adjustment correction adjusts for underreporting of cases, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results in this early submission. Cancer 2016;122:1579-87. 2016 American Cancer Society.


PubMed | Information Management Systems Incorporated and National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer | Year: 2015

The National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program collects and publishes population-based cancer incidence data from registries covering approximately 28% (seer.cancer.gov/registries/data.html) of the US population. SEER incidence rates are released annually in April from data submitted the prior November. The time needed to identify, consolidate, clean, and submit data requires the latest diagnosis year included to be 3 years before release. Approaches, opportunities, and cautions for an earlier release of data based on a February submission are described.First, cases submitted in February for the latest diagnosis year represented 92% to 98% of those in the following November submission. A reporting delay model was used to statistically adjust counts in recent diagnosis years for cases projected in the future. February submissions required larger adjustment factors than November submissions. Second, trends were checked to assess the validity.Most cancer sites had similar annual percent change (APC) trends for February and November 2013. Male colon and rectum cancer and female lung and bronchus cancer showed an acceleration in declining APC trends only in February. Average annual percent change (AAPC) trends for the 2 submissions were similar for all sites.For the first time, preliminary 2012 incidence rates, based on February submissions, are provided. An accelerated decline starting in 2008 for male colon and rectum cancer rates and male lung cancer rates did not persist when 2012 data were added. An earlier release of SEER data is possible. Caution must be exercised when one is interpreting changing trends. Use of the more conservative AAPC is advised.

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