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Almansa J.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar | Ayuso-Mateos J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ayuso-Mateos J.L.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Garin O.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: There has been no attempt to obtain a continuous summary measure of disability from the checklist of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Our objective was to assess whether valid scales of Capacity and Performance could be developed from the "Activities and Participation" domain of the ICF checklist. Study Design and Setting: A multicenter, observational study of 1,092 patients with 12 different chronic conditions from five European countries was conducted. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess the underlying factor structure. Reliability and validity of the Capacity and Performance scales were evaluated. Construct validity was assessed calculating effect size coefficients between extreme severity groups (discriminant ability). Results: The good fit of the confirmatory factor model supported the global scales of Capacity and Performance and their "Psychosocial" and "Physical" subscales. Reliability was excellent (coefficients = 0.79-0.92). Effect sizes of most conditions were large for the Capacity global scale (0.50-3.05), and slightly lower for the Performance global scale (0.45-2.57). Conclusions: Our findings support the measurement model, reliability, and validity of the Capacity and Performance scales. Summary measures of functioning based on the ICF can be obtained using these scales, which should facilitate their incorporation in clinical and epidemiological studies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Patel V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chatterji S.,Health Statistics and Informatics | Ebrahim S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ebrahim S.,Public Health Foundation of India | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular diseases, mental health disorders, diabetes, and cancer) and injuries are the leading causes of death and disability in India, and we project pronounced increases in their contribution to the burden of disease during the next 25 years. Most chronic diseases are equally prevalent in poor and rural populations and often occur together. Although a wide range of cost-effective primary and secondary prevention strategies are available, their coverage is generally low, especially in poor and rural populations. Much of the care for chronic diseases and injuries is provided in the private sector and can be very expensive. Sufficient evidence exists to warrant immediate action to scale up interventions for chronic diseases and injuries through private and public sectors; improved public health and primary health-care systems are essential for the implementation of cost-effective interventions. We strongly advocate the need to strengthen social and policy frameworks to enable the implementation of interventions such as taxation on bidis (small hand-rolled cigarettes), smokeless tobacco, and locally brewed alcohols. We also advocate the integration of national programmes for various chronic diseases and injuries with one another and with national health agendas. India has already passed the early stages of a chronic disease and injury epidemic; in view of the implications for future disease burden and the demographic transition that is in progress in India, the rate at which effective prevention and control is implemented should be substantially increased. The emerging agenda of chronic diseases and injuries should be a political priority and central to national consciousness, if universal health care is to be achieved. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Garin O.,IMIM Hospital del Mar | Garin O.,CIBER ISCIII | Ayuso-Mateos J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Almansa J.,IMIM Hospital del Mar | And 18 more authors.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2010

Background: The WHODAS-2 is a disability assessment instrument based on the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). It provides a global measure of disability and 7 domain-specific scores. The aim of this study was to assess WHODAS-2 conceptual model and metric properties in a set of chronic and prevalent clinical conditions accounting for a wide scope of disability in Europe.Methods: 1,119 patients with one of 13 chronic conditions were recruited in 7 European centres. Participants were clinically evaluated and administered the WHODAS-2 and the SF-36 at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months of follow-up. The latent structure was explored and confirmed by factor analysis (FA). Reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficients, ICC). Construct validity was evaluated by correlating the WHODAS-2 and SF-36 domains, and comparing known groups based on the clinical-severity and work status. Effect size (ES) coefficient was used to assess responsiveness. To assess reproducibility and responsiveness, subsamples of stable (at 6 weeks) and improved (after 3 moths) patients were defined, respectively, according to changes in their clinical-severity.Results: The satisfactory FA goodness of fit indexes confirmed a second order factor structure with 7 dimensions, and a global score for the WHODAS-2. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.77 (self care) to 0.98 (life activities: work or school), and the ICC was lower, but achieved the recommended standard of 0.7 for four domains. Correlations between global WHODAS-2 score and the different domains of the SF-36 ranged from -0.29 to -0.65. Most of the WHODAS-2 scores showed statistically significant differences among clinical-severity groups for all pathologies, and between working patients and those not working due to ill health (p < 0.001). Among the subsample of patients who had improved, responsiveness coefficients were small to moderate (ES = 0.3-0.7), but higher than those of the SF-36.Conclusions: The latent structure originally designed by WHODAS-2 developers has been confirmed for the first time, and it has shown good metric properties in clinic and rehabilitation samples. Therefore, considerable support is provided to the WHODAS-2 utilization as an international instrument to measure disability based on the ICF model. © 2010 Garin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Switaj P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Anczewska M.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Chrostek A.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Sabariego C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 3 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: Schizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as disabilities, in particular impairments of mental functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions.Methods: An electronic search using MEDLINE and PsychINFO plus a manual search of the literature was performed for qualitative and longitudinal studies published in English between 2005 and 2010 that examined PSDs in persons with schizophrenia. The ICF was used as a conceptual framework.Results: A total of 104 papers were included. The most frequent PSDs addressed in the literature were not specific ones, directly linkable to the ICF categories of mental functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions, but broad areas of psychosocial functioning, such as psychopathological symptoms (53% of papers) or global disability and functioning (37%). Among mental functions, the most extensively studied were cognitive functions (27%) and emotional functions (27%). Within the domain of activities and participation, the most widely investigated were difficulties in relationships with others (31%) and employment (20%). Of the factors associated with the intensity or course of PSDs, the most commonly identified were treatment modalities (56%), psychopathological symptoms (26%), and socio-demographic variables (24%). Medication tended to improve the most relevant PSD, but at the same time was the only consistently reported determinant of onset of PSDs (emerging as unwanted side-effects).Conclusions: The present review illustrates the remarkably broad scope and diversity of psychosocial areas affected in schizophrenia and shows how these areas are interconnected and how they interact with contextual factors. The need for a shift in focus of schizophrenia research is suggested - from an excessive reliance on global measures of psychopathology and disability for defining outcomes to the creation of profiles of specific PSDs that have a more direct bearing on the disabling experience and real-world functioning of patients and can serve to guide interventions and monitoring over time. © 2012 Switaj et al.

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