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Kok C.K.,Multimedia University | Yeo V.S.H.,Infineon Technology Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. | Sim H.K.,Multimedia University
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage | Year: 2012

Despite being an advanced technology, wire bonding in an actual manufacturing setting can greatly affect bond reliability. Many engineering parameters in upstream processes, if not controlled properly, may propagate downstream and limit the bond strength achievable during wire bonding. In this study, the DMAIC approach of Six Sigma methodology was used to improve the wire bonding quality of an opto-coupler device developed by an electronic manufacturing firm in Malaysia. Using the five distinctive phases of the DMAIC, the problem was methodologically defined and its contributors identified, which include the improper material handling procedure, the tilted pad, and the un-optimised bonding parameters. Corrective actions were deployed and the bond shear force of the device improved using the response surface methodology. The result is an in increase of the average bond shear force of the emitter and detector die from 57.2 g to 77.7 g and from 55.8 g to 66.5 g, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Joseph Sahaya Anand T.,University Technical Malaysia Melaka | Yau C.K.,University Technical Malaysia Melaka | Huat L.B.,Infineon Technology Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

In this work, influence of Copper free air ball (FAB) oxidation towards Intermetallic Compound (IMC) at Copper wire-Aluminum bond pad metallization (Cu/Al) is studied. Samples are synthesized with different Copper FAB oxidation condition by turning Forming Gas supply ON and OFF. Studies are performed using Optical Microscope (OM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and line-scan Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). SEM result shows there is a cross-sectional position offset from center in sample synthesized with Forming Gas OFF. This is due to difficulty of determining the position of cross-section in manual grinding/polishing process and high occurrence rate of golf-clubbed shape of oxidized Copper ball bond. TEM inspection reveals that the Copper ball bond on sample synthesized with Forming Gas OFF is having intermediate oxidation. Besides, the presence of IMC at the bonding interface of Cu/Al for both samples is seen. TEM study shows voids form at the bonding interface of Forming Gas ON sample belongs to unbonded area; while that in Forming Gas OFF sample is due to volume shrinkage of IMC growth. Line-scan EDX shows the phases present in the interfaces of as-bonded samples are Al 4Cu 9 (∼3 nm) for sample with Forming Gas ON and mixed CuAl and CuAl 2 (∼15 nm) for sample with Forming Gas OFF. Thicker IMC in sample with Forming Gas OFF is due to cross-section is positioned at high stress area that is close to edge of ball bond. Mechanical ball shear test shows that shear strength of sample with Forming Gas OFF is about 19% lower than that of sample with Forming Gas ON. Interface temperature is estimated at 437 °C for as-bonded sample with Forming Gas ON by using empirical parabolic law of volume diffusion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chin J.W.C.,Multimedia University | Kok C.K.,Multimedia University | Rajmohan M.M.,Infineon Technology Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. | Yeo V.S.H.,Infineon Technology Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. | Said M.R.,Hang Tuah University
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2012

The lead trim-and-form process is important in the manufacturing of programmable logic devices, microprocessors, and memories. Normally, inspection of a chip package is performed in a lead inspection machine after the lead forming process to detect defects on the leads. One such defect is the lead intermetallic compound (IMC) crack, exhibiting itself as plating crack. In this study, IMC crack of package leads, which causes loose connection between the copper lead and the tin plating, was analyzed using the finite-element method. The simulation results were verified by matching the simulated and actual formed lead profile. Simulation results showed a strong correlation between IMC crack after forming and aging and high residual tensile strain induced during lead forming. A proposal was made to resolve the crack issue by performing design of experiment (DOE) to reduce the residual tensile strain of the lead upon forming. Three optimization parameters were chosen, namely the forming angle, the shank angle, and the pre-forming angle. It is shown that, with the optimized parameter setting, a reduction of the residual strain can be achieved, thus minimizing the risk of IMC crack. © 2012 TMS.


Chua K.Y.,Hang Tuah University | Hng M.T.,Infineon Technology Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. | Lee C.C.,Infineon Technology Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. | Anand T.J.S,Hang Tuah University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Cu-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) in Cu wire-Al bond pad interconnect interface is drawing attention of researches. However, due to thin IMC thickness, the characterizations of the IMC are limited to expensive and time consuming techniques. An evaluation is performed to use common X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique to identify the IMC in the Cu wired micro-chip samples in powder form. Existence of mixture of CuAl and CuAl2 was first confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). In XRD analysis, peak correspond to CuAl phase is identified from measurement with slower scan configuration. The difficulty for IMC peak detection in diffractogram is due to low composition ratio of IMC relative to other materials available in the sample. KOH treatment for enhancing IMC peaks intensity does not work as expected as it etches the IMC as well. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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