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Hwang H.M.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.H.,Kangwon National University | Min B.S.,Catholic University of Daegu | Jeon B.H.,Infectious Signaling Network Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Elevated endothelial arginase activity decreases nitric oxide (NO) production by competing with the substrate L-arginine, previously reported, and reciprocally regulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Thus, arginase inhibitors may help treat vascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. A screening of metabolites from medicinal plants revealed that (2S)-5,2',5'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavanone (TDF) was a noncompetitive inhibitor of arginase. We investigated whether TDF reciprocally regulated endothelial NO production and its possible mechanism. TDF noncompetitively inhibited arginase I and II activity in a dose-dependent manner. TDF incubation decreased arginase activity and increased NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and isolated mouse aortic vessels and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the endothelium of the latter. These TDF-mediated effects were associated with increased eNOS phosphorylation and dimerization but not with changes in protein content. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine (Ach) were significantly increased in TDF-incubated aortic rings and attenuated by incubation with soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses were markedly attenuated in TDF-treated vessels from wild-type mice. In atherogenic-prone ApoE∗-/-mice, TDF attenuated the high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced increase in arginase activity, which was accompanied by restoration of NO production and reduction of ROS generation. TDF incubation induced eNOS dimerization and phosphorylation at Ser1177. In addition, TDF improved Ach-dependent vasorelaxation responses and attenuated U46619-dependent contractile responses but did not change sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation or N-NAME-induced vasoconstriction. The findings suggest that TDF may help treat cardiovascular diseases by reducing pathophysiology derived from HCD-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Lee E.J.,Infectious Signaling Network Research Center | Lee Y.R.,Infectious Signaling Network Research Center | Joo H.K.,Infectious Signaling Network Research Center | Cho E.J.,Infectious Signaling Network Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2013

Arginase II catalyzes the conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine in many extrahepatic tissues. We investigated the protective role of arginase II on lipopolysaccharide-mediated apoptosis in the macrophage cells. Adenoviral gene transfer of full length of arginase II was performed in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The role of arginase II was investigated with cell viability, cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation assay, arginase activity, nitric oxide production, and Western blot analysis. Arginase II is localized in mitochondria of macrophage cells, and the expression of arginase II was increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS significantly increased cell death which was inhibited by AMT, a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. In contrast, LPS-induced cell death and nitric oxide production were increased by 2-boronoethyl-L-cysteine, a specific inhibitor of arginase. Adenoviral overexpression of arginase II significantly inhibited LPS-induced cell death and cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation. LPS-induced iNOS expression and poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage were significantly suppressed by arginase II overexpression. Furthermore, arginase II overexpression resulted in a decrease in the Bax protein level and the reverse induction of Bcl-2 protein. Our data demonstrated that inhibition of NO production by arginase II may be due to arginine depletion as well as iNOS suppression though its reaction products. Moreover, arginase II plays a protective role of LPS-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells. © 2013 The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology and Springer Netherlands.

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