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Nasi M.,Dentistry and Morphological science | De Biasi S.,Dentistry and Morphological science | Digaetano M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Gibellini L.,Dentistry and Morphological science | And 6 more authors.

Objective: Few studies have investigated the importance of different components of the inflammasome system and of innate mitochondrial sensing (IMS) pathways in HIV infection and its treatment. We analysed the expression of several components of the inflammasome and of the IMS in HIV-positive patients taking successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: We enrolled 20 HIV-positive patients under cART, who achieved viral suppression since at least 10 months and 20 age and sex-matched healthy donors. By RT-PCR, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we quantified the mRNA expression of 16 genes involved in inflammasome activation and regulation (AIM2, NAIP, PYCARD, CASP1, CASP5, NLRP6, NLRP1, NLRP3, TXNIP, BCL2, NLRC4, PANX1, P2RX7, IL-18, IL-1β, SUGT1) and eight genes involved in IMS (MFN2, MFN1, cGAS, RIG-I, MAVS, NLRX1, RAB32, STING). Results: Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients showed significantly lower mRNA levels of the mitochondrial protein NLRX1, which plays a key role in regulating apoptotic cell death; main PBMC subpopulations behave in a similar manner. No differences were observed in the expression of inflammasome components, which however showed complex correlations. Conclusion: The decreased level of NLRX1 in HIV infection could suggest that the virus is able to downregulate mechanisms linked to triggering of cell death in several immune cell types. The fact that HIV-positive patients did not show altered expression of inflammasome components, nor of most genes involved in IMS, suggests that the infection and/or the chronic immune activation does not influence the transcriptional machinery of innate mechanisms able to trigger inflammation at different levels. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Nasi M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | De Biasi S.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bianchini E.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Gibellini L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 6 more authors.

January Background An accurate and affordable CD4+ T cells count is an essential tool in the fight against HIV/ AIDS. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the "gold standard" for counting such cells, but this technique is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment, temperature-sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and trained personnel. The lack of access to technical support and quality assurance programs thus limits the use of FCM in resource-constrained countries. We have tested the accuracy, the precision and the carry-over contamination of Partec CyFlow MiniPOC, a portable and economically affordable flow cytometer designed for CD4+ count and percentage, used along with the "CD4% Count Kit-Dry". Materials and Methods Venous blood from 59 adult HIV+ patients (age: 25-58 years; 43 males and 16 females) was collected and stained with the " MiniPOC CD4% Count Kit-Dry ". CD4+ count and percentage were then determined in triplicate by the CyFlow MiniPOC. In parallel, CD4 count was performed using mAbs and a CyFlow Counter, or by a dual platform system (from Beckman Coulter) based upon Cytomic FC500 ("Cytostat tetrachrome kit" for mAbs) and Coulter HmX Hematology Analyzer (for absolute cell count). Results The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against Cytomic FC500 showed a correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.98 and 0.97 for CD4+ count and percentage, respectively. The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against CyFlow Counter showed a CC of 0.99 and 0.99 for CD4 T cell count and percentage, respectively. CyFlow MiniPOC showed an excellent repeatability: CD4+ cell count and percentage were analyzed on two instruments, with an intra-assay precision below ±5% deviation. Finally, there was no carry-over contamination for samples at all CD4 values, regardless of their position in the sequence of analysis. Conclusion The cost-effective CyFlow MiniPOC produces rapid, reliable and accurate results that are fully comparable with those from highly expensive dual platform systems. © 2015 Nasi et al. Source

Kolgelier S.,Adiyaman University | Demir N.A.,University of Konya | Demir L.S.,Konya Health Public Directory | Ozcimen S.,Infectious Diseases Clinics
European Journal of General Medicine

Aim of this study to investigate the level of knowledge about hepatitis B and prevalence of HBsAg carriage in police and other security staff. Hepatitis B knowledge of police and other staff working for Adiyaman police department were measured using a questionnaire. This questionnaire was prepared after a literature search and was applied to 683 subjects before an education seminar. Fully and regularly filled 437 questionnaires were selected for evaluation. HBsAg and Anti HBs values of subjects were measured. Data were recorded to SPSS 16.0 package program. Chi square test was used for data analyses. Of all the study subjects 406 (92.9%) were males and 31 (7.1%) were females. Three hundred sixty subjects (82.3%) were police staff, 60 (13.7%) were public serveants, 15 (3.4%) were commissaries and 2 (0.05%) were nightmen. Mean age was 34.5 ± 7. Fifty four subjects gave correct answers to the question about transmission ways of hepatitis B. Three hundred eighty four subjects didn’t have enough knowledge about transmission ways of this virus. HBsAg positivity was detected in 34 (7.7%) subjects. Three hundred twenty five (51,4%) subjects had adequate antibody level for immunity. As a result, we detected that knowledge level was inadequate and increased risk for infection in this profession. It was concluded that security staff should be educated regarding risks and screened for bloodborne diseases. © 2015, TIP ARASTIRMALARI DERNEGI. All rights reserved. Source

Nasi M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Alboni S.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Pinti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Tascedda F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

The importance of interleukin (IL)-18 in mediating immune activation during HIV infection has recently emerged. IL-18 activity is regulated by its receptor (IL-18R), formed by an α and a β chain, the IL-18-binding protein, and the newly identified shorter isoforms of both IL-18R chains. We evaluated gene expression of the IL-18/IL-18R system in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV+ patients. Compared with healthy donors, IL-18 expression decreased in patients with primary infection. The IL-18Rα short transcript expression was strongly upregulated by successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV progression and its treatment can influence the expression of different components of the complex IL-18/IL-18R system. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Nasi M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Riva A.,University of Milan | Borghi V.,Infectious Diseases Clinics | D'Amico R.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Objectives: About 2-5% of HIV-1-infected subjects, defined as long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), remain immunologically stable for a long time without treatment. The factors governing this condition are known only in part, and include genetic factors. Thus, we studied 20 polymorphisms of 15 genes encoding proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, chemokines and their receptors, genes involved in apoptosis, and the gene HCP5. Methods: We analyzed 47 Caucasian LTNPs infected for >9 years, compared with 131 HIV-1-infected Caucasian patients defined as 'usual progressors'. The genotypes were determined by methods based upon PCR, and the statistical analysis was performed by univariate logistic regression. Results: The well-known CCR5δ32 del32 allele, the cell death-related TNF-α-238 A and PDCD1-7209 T alleles, and HCP5 rs2395029 G, a non-coding protein associated with the HLA-B*5701, were found positively associated with the LTNP condition. No association was observed for other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SDF-1-801, IL-10-592, MCP-1-2518, CX3CR1 V249I, CCR2V64I, RANTES-403, IL-2-330, IL-1β-511, IL-4-590, FASL IVS3nt-169, FAS-670, FAS-1377, FASL IVS2nt-124, PDCD1-7146, MMP-7-181, and MMP7-153). Conclusions: The novel genetic associations between allelic variants of genes TNF-α-238 and PDCD1-7209 with the LTNP condition underline the importance of host genetic factors in the progression of HIV-1 infection and in immunological preservation. © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

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